Neuroscience - Block 2 - Part 4

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-03-06 05:11

Cranial Nerves

Question Answer
This cranial nerve does not go to the brain stemCN I
This cranial nerve goes to another place in the brain before going to the ThalamusCN I
Bipolar, Unmylenated and outside of the CNSCN I
The second order neurons for the CN I are located hereOlfactory Bulb
Contains decussating axons from CN I, but also provides connection between amygdalas, and also helps to convey some acute (neospinothalamic) pain informationAnterior Commissure
Part of the temporal lobe, primary olfactory area (34) found here. Also is the portion that herniates in transtentorial herniationUncus
The left visual field goes to this side of the brainRight Side of the Brain
The right visual field goes to this side of the brainLeft Side of the Brain
This part of the visual field crosses at the optic chasmTemporal Field
What you are looking atVisual Field
The information passing through the pupil and hitting the retinaRetinal Field
Part of the visual field going through the temporal lobe of the brainMeyer's Loop (Upper Quadrant Visual Field)
Part of the visual field going through the parietal lobe of the brainLower Quadrant Visual Field
Fibers for the visuo-postural reflex go to this part of the brainTectum
Muscle innervation: Superior, middle and inferior rectus, inferior obliqueCN III
One eye does not perceive light equally. One eye senses the light as darker than the other causing pupils to dilate when the light is shined inRelative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD) (Marcus Gunn Pupil)
Innervates the superior oblique. Uncommon due to location and exits posteriorly from the red nucleusCN IV
Most common cause of acute CN IV symptoms is thisHead Trauma
Head tilts to side, towards a nucleus lesion, away from a nerve lesion. (Always away from the affected eye)Torsional Diplopia
Left trochlear nucleus gives rise to this trochlear nerveRight Trochlear Nerve
Right Trochlear Nerve arises from this nucleusLeft Trochlear Nucleus
Right trochlear nucleus gives rise to this trochlear nerveLeft Trochlear Nerve
Left Trochlear Nerve arises from this nucleusRight Trochlear Nucleus
Located in the caudal pons. Innervates the Lateral Rectus m. Abducts the eyeCN VI
Nuclei of the CN V are located at this level of the brainMid Pons
This is the nucleus for the CN V in the ThalamusVentro-Posterior Medial Nucleus (VPM)
Motor nucleus (small and localized), Mesencephalic nucleus of CN V, Main sensory nucleus of CN V, Spinal nucleus of CN VTrigeminal Nuclei
Sensory nucleus of CN V that starts in midbrain, extends into the pons. Stops where main sensory nucleus beginsMesencephalic Nucleus
Sensory nucleus of CN V that starts in pons and becomes continuous with the spinal nucleus in the medullaMain Sensory Nucleus
Sensory nucleus of CN V that extends inferiorly into the spinal cord as far as C2Spinal Nucleus
Localized to pons, medial to main sensory nucleus (masseter, temporalis, tensor tympani)Motor Nucleus
Propioception from the jaw, mechanoreceptors from the teethMesencephalic Nucleus
Touch/position sensation from face (sorta like dorsal column info)Main Sensory Nucleus
Pain/temperature from the face (sorta like spinothalamic)Spinal Nucleus
Localized to pons, medial to main sensory nucleus (masseter, temporalis, tensor tympani)Motor Nucleus
Sensory information from CN V from one side of the face entersIpsilateral Spinotrigeminal Nucleus
Spinotrigeminal Nucleus information then cross and ascends contralaterally as thisTrigeminal Lemniscus
Motor neurons for CNs IX, X and XI are located in this nucleusNucleus Ambiguus
Sensory neurons for CN’s VII, IX and X are located in this nucleusNucleus Solitartius
Opthalmic nerve (CN V 1) exits skull viaSuperior Orbital Fissure
Mandibular nerve (CN V 3) exits skull viaForamen Ovale
Maxillary nerve (CN V 2) exits skull viaForamen Rotundum
Motor component innervates muscles of face and scalp, Stapedius muscle, Posterior belly of digastric, and stylohyoid musclesCN VII
Sensory Component responsible for taste sensation from anterior 2/3 of tongue. Also taste from floor of mouth and palateCN VII
Parasympathetic Component responsible Submandibular + sublingual salivatory glands. Lacrimal gland. Glands of nose and palateCN VII
Inputs from cortex via corticobulbar tracts. Voluntary control of facial musclesMotor Nucleus
Descending autonomic inputs from hypothalamus, taste information from nucleus solitariusSuperior Salivatory Nucleus
Hypothalamic inputs (emotional responses), also inputs from sensory nucleus of V for reflex lacrimation (during corneal reflex)Lacrimal Nucleus
Sensory information (ie. wisp of cotton) are transmitted via CN V to reticular formation (RF). RF fibers bilaterally innervate motor nucleus of CN VII. CN VII axons innervate orbicularis oculi, which closes the eyelidsCorneal Reflex
Corneal Reflex goes through this structure in the brain to connect CN V to CN VIIReticular Formation
Sound and light can also illicit this as they both also go through the reticular formationCorneal Reflex
Taste information goes to intermediate nerve (which also does GVE component of CN VII). Chorda tympani. Lingual nerve (a branch of V3 but also conveys taste information) through this ganglionGeniculate Ganglion
Branch of this cranial nerve that innervates the semi-circular canalsVestibulo Branch of CN VIII
Branch of this cranial nerve that innervates the cochlea which is responsible for hearingCochlear Branch of CN VIII
Vestibulo branch of the CN VIII go to this nucleus in the ponsVestibular Nucleus
Fibers from both cochlear nuclei (anterior/posterior) synapse bilaterally on thisOlivary Nuclei
Axons from olivary nuclei ascend to inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of the thalamus as thisLateral Lemniscus
CN VIII is involved in smooth tracking and saccadic (jumping) eye movementsOptokinetic Reflex
All sensory input from the back 1/3 of the tongueCN IX
Somatic sensory (pain, pressure, touch) input from the front 2/3 of the tongueCN V
Taste input from the front 2/3 of the tongueCN VII
Location of some motor nuclei for CN’s IX, X and XINucleus Ambiguus
Some sensory components of CN’s VII, IX and X terminate hereNucleus Solitarius
Sensation from external auditory canal (via auricular branch of vagus). Connects with spinal tract and nucleus of CN VCN IX (GSA)
Sensation from posterior 1/3 of tongue, pharynx, tonsils, auditory tube. Also carotid sinus (baroreceptors) and carotid body (chemoreceptors)CN IX (GVA)
Taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue. Petrosal ganglion to nucleus solitariusCN IX (SVA)
Innervation of stylopharyngeus muscleCN IX (SVE)
Parasympathetic. Parotid and otic glandsCN IX (GVE)
Infratentorial dura, external ear, tympanic membrane. Connects with spinal tract and nucleus of CN VCN X (GSA)
Sensation from throat areas, nodose ganglionCN X (GVA)
Taste buds in epiglottis. Nodose ganglionCN X (SVA)
Pharyngeal arch muscles of pharynx and larynx, striated muscle of upper esophagus, uvula, levator palatini and palatoglossus musclesCN X (SVE)
Innervates viscera of neck and thoracic (heart) and abdominal cavities. Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus contributes hereCN X (GVE)
Motor nuclei in nucleus ambiguus, mediates swallowing (larynx). Also some proprioceptive feedback. Described by some authors as being part of CN X, as they both originate from the nucleus ambiguus).CN XI (Cranial Division)
Located in the ventral horns of the spinal cord exit the skull again via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius musclesCN XI (Spinal Division)
Innervates muscles of the tongue and proprioception from the tongueCN XII

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