Neuroscience - Block 2 - Neuro Pathologies Part 2

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-02-24 17:16


Question Answer
Most common cause of intracranial bleeding. Caused by deposition of amyloid in medium and small cortical and leptomeningeal vessels makes vessels structurally brittle and weak. Occurs in cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter; most common areas are frontal and parietal lobesAmyloid Angiopathy
Lesion or compression of the medial aspect of optic chiasm will cause thisBilateral Temporal Hemianopia
Bilateral Temporal Hemianopia is usually caused by thisPituitary Adenoma
Compression of the lateral edge of the optic chiasm will cause thisBilateral Nasal Hemianopia
Bilateral Nasal Hemianopia is usually caused by thisBilateral Atherosclerosis of Carotid Artery
Lesion or compression of the right optic tractLeft Homonymous Hemianopia
Lesion or compression of the left optic tractRight Homonymous Hemianopia
Lesion of the optic nerve will causeUnilateral Blindness
Lesion of the optic tractContralateral Homonymous Hemianopia
Lesion of the left temporal lobeRight Upper Quadantanopia
Lesion of the left parietal lobeRight Lower Quadantanopia
Lesion of the left occipital lobeRight Hemianopia with Macular Sparing
Lesion of the right temporal lobeLeft Upper Quadantanopia
Lesion of the right parietal lobeLeft Lower Quadantanopia
Lesion of the right occipital lobeLeft Hemianopia with Macular Sparing
Medial deviation of the affected eye. Inability to abduct the eye across the midline (assuming complete lesion; limited damage may simply reduce abduction). Horizontal diplopia. Strabismus - misalignment of the eyes which causes diplopia, and loss of depth perceptionCN VI Damage
Difficulty in chewing. Jaw deviates towards lesion upon opening. Loss of sensation from affected areas of face and head. Loss of corneal reflexCN V Damage
Cause is often unknown. Severe, burning pain in affected branch(es). Sometimes follows viral infection. May also be related to vascular problems, typically arteries pressing on nerve. Can be triggered by mild stimuli. Affects opthalmic division infrequently. Episodes can last from minutes to days. Interval between episodes varies (minutes to months)Trigeminal Neuralgia
Trigeminal Neuralgia in which there is extreme, sporadic episodes of burning or ‘shock-like’ pain. Lasts a few seconds to minutes, can occur in successionTrigeminal Neuralgia Type 1
Trigeminal Neuralgia in which there is constant burning, aching or stabbing pain, of lower intensityTrigeminal Neuralgia Type 2
Usually unilateral. Swelling of the nerve within the facial canal. Results in LMN facial paralysis. Etiology unknown, but possibly occurs due to inflammation secondary to viral infection. 80% of patients recover within three months. Nerve regeneration can lead to ‘Crocodile Tears’ syndromeBell's Palsy
All symptoms ipsilateral - Facial paralysis (upper and lower). Loss of lacrimation. Decreased salivation. Loss of taste sensation, anterior 2/3 of tongue. Hyperacusis (stapedius muscle paralysis)CN VII Damage
Arousal and orientation. Learning and memory. Personality deficits. Executive function (apathy). Emotional facial paresis. Dysphasia (left side lesion). Anterograde amnesiaTuberothalamic Artery Occlusion
Typical deficits include Thalamic syndrome, Spontaneous intense pain, Contralateral analgesic resistant, Possible mood swings, Somatosensory loss (variable), Proprioceptive loss, Ataxia and hemiparesisThalamogeniculate Artery Occlusion
Typical deficits include Transient loss of consciousness, Behavioral changes, Confusion / delirium, Frontal lobe-like symptoms, Agitation / aggression, Anterograde and retrograde amnesia, Vertical gaze paresis and Speech impairment is caused by occlusion or damage to thisParamedian Thalamic Artery
Typical deficits (variable) include possible quadrantanopsia, Contralateral hemiparesis, Hemisensory loss, Hyperkinetic motor syndrome, Ataxia, Tremor and ChoreaPosterior Choroidal Arteries Occlusion
Typical deficit (variable) is hemisensory lossThalamoperforate Arteries
The deficits would be contralateral. Can affect all types of sensory input Touch, Vibration, Proprioception, Special senses (exc. olfaction), Pain. This could lead to ataxia (loss of muscle sense)Thalamic Lesions
Always ipsilateral to the lesion, regardless of level. Lateral regions of brainstem, or lateral white matter of spinal cord. Runs very near spinothalamic tractHorner’s Syndrome
Partial drooping of the eyelid. Loss of innervation of superior tarsal musclePtosis
Constricted pupilMiosis
Absence of sweating on one half of the bodyHemi-anhydrosis
Recession of the eye into the orbitEnophthalmos
Pain to face, neck or trunk causes ipsilateral pupil dilation. This reflex is absent in Horner’sLoss of Ciliospinal Reflex
Hypopituitarism resulting from ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary following postpartum hemorrhage. Adenohypophysis becomes enlarged during pregnancy, but blood supply does not increase. Blood supply in this area diminishes during childbirth, leaving region highly susceptible to damage secondary to postpartum hemorrhageSheehan's Syndrome
Benign tumor arising from the remnants of Rathke’s pouch. Extends into the sella turcica, compressing damaging optic nerves and chiasm, then pituitary/hypothalamus. Most patients under 20 yrs old. Symptoms (other than visual) are variedCraniopharyngioma
‘Normal’ appearing tissue comprised of neurons and glia. Non cancerous. Symptom onset usually in infancy. Precocious puberty can be treated with GnRH agonists.Hypothalamic Hamartoma
Do not occur within hypothalamus, attached to the tuber cinerum, and project outside the ventricle into the suprasellar cistern. Less seizures than Sessile, but more likely to cause precocious pubertyPedunculated Hypothalamic Hamartoma
Seizures very likely (particularly gelastic), retardation, and often aggressive behaviors. Attached to mammillary bodies (i.e. ‘within’ the hypothalamus)Sessile Hypothalamic Hamartoma
Outbursts of laughter with no apparent cause. Duration < 1 minGelastic Seizures
Symptoms include Hypotonia, Dysdiadochokinesia, Dysmetria (over/under shooting), Dysarthria (slurred speech) and Intention tremorNeocerebellum
Symptoms include cerebella dystaxia of the lower limb, trunk. Problems with gaitAnterior Vermis Syndrome
Anterior vermis syndrome is a problem with this part of the cerebellumPaleocerebellum
Symptoms include Postural changes and alteration of gait, Nystagmus, Dizzyness, Nausea, Vomiting, VertigoPosterior Vermis Syndrome
Posterior Vermis Syndrome can be caused byEpendymoma or Medulablastoma

Recent badges