Neuroscience - Block 2 - Neuro Pathologies Part 1

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-03-06 05:24


Question Answer
Disorder in which the entire body cannot produce epinephrine and norepinephrineDopamine Beta Hydroxylase Deficiency
Tumor that is not normally cancerous. Results in too much epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in Abdominal pain, Chest pain, Pallor, Palpitations, Rapid heart rate, Severe headache, Sweating, Weight loss, Irritability and nervousnessPheochromocytoma
Hard white tumors mostly found in the abdomen and are often asymptomaticGanglioneuroma
Malignant tumor commonly found in the adrenal glandNeuroblastoma
Tropical disease caused by the protozoan trypanosoma cruzi. Degeneration/decreased number of intrinsic myenteric neuronsChagas
Affects the large intestine due to missing nerves in the muscles of part or all of the baby's colon. Extreme colonic dilation and hypertrophyHirschsprung's Disease
A sustained drop in SBP (≥ 20 mm Hg) or DBP (≥ 10 mm Hg) within three minutes of standing upOrthostatic Hypotension
Orthostatic hypotension is precipitation by autonomic stressors - Eating, Hot bath, Exercise or Alcohol consumptionNeurogenic Hypotension
Condition observed in ~85% of patients spinal cord injuries between C6 to T10. Signs and symptoms include exaggerated autonomic reflexes - Sudden dramatic increases in BP evoked by inappropriate stimuli (e.g., pressure on the bladder), headache, hypertension, tachycardia, fever and profuse sweating above injury but dry skin belowAutonomic Dysreflexia
Progressive degenerative condition affecting the ANS brainstem neurons, Locus ceruleus, Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, Substantia nigra, Caudate nucleus and Cerebellum. Lewy bodies are present along with profound orthostatic hypotension without a compensatory increase in heart rateShy-Drager Syndrome
Genetic condition with signs and symptoms including lack of tears, insensitivity to pain or changes in temperature, sweating while eating, episodic abdominal problems, fevers, orthostatic hypotension, present at birth, and grow worse. Almost entirely limited to Ashkenazi JewsRiley-Day Syndrome
Excessive sympathetic stimulation results in vasoconstriction of arterioles in fingers and toes, causing pain and reduced blood flow. Most common in young women, and is worse in cold climates. Can be treated with Preganglionic sympathectomy (ganglion resection) or Calcium channel blockers or Calcium channel blockers or Alpha-1 adrenergic blockersRaynaud’s Disease
Disorder affecting 1st, 2nd, or 3rd order sympathetic neurons, nuclei, or ganglia. Signs and symptoms are ipsilateral to lesion - Upper eyelid ptosis (levator palpabrae superioris), Miosis in dimmed light, Anisocoria or different pupil size and Anhydrosis (absence of sweating), enopthamosis and loss of cilliospinal reflexHorner’s Syndrome
Hypothalamospinal tract (cervical spinal cord lesion) damage due to Stroke, Tumor, Demyelination, Neck trauma, Syringomyelia1st Order Horner's Syndrome
From the spinal column, across the upper chest and side of the neck due to Lung cancer (compression), Tumor of the myelin sheath (schwannoma), Damage to the common carotid artery and Surgery or traumatic injury2nd Order Horner's Syndrome
From the side of the neck to the facial skin and muscles of the iris/eyelids due to Carotid artery dissection (delamination), Damage to the jugular vein, Tumor near the base of the skull (esp. cavenous sinus), Cyclical migraines or cluster headaches3rd Order Horner's Syndrome
Ciliary ganglion or nerve lesion characterized by fixed dilated pupil or pupil slow to react on affected side but definite response to accommodation. Absence of deep tendon reflexes (especially Achilles tendon). Excessive sweating on one sideHolmes-Adie Syndrome
Contralateral lower face paralysis. Contralateral tongue weakness (tongue will deviate away from a lesion). Contralateral palate (uvula will deviate towards a lesion)Corticobulbar Lesion
CN III axons: Ipsilateral ptosis, mydriasis, eye down and out. Corticospinal: Contralateral arm and leg weakness, Babinski, etc. Corticobulbar: Contralateral lower face, tongue, and palate. Occlusion of the peramedian branch of the posterior cerebral artery.Weber’s Syndrome (Superior Alternating Syndrome)
Oculomotor deficits - Ipsilateral oculomotor nerve paralysis. Eye abduction and depression. Severe ptosis. Fixed, dilated pupil (internal opthalmoplegia). Cerebellar ataxia (damage to red nucleus - contralateral ataxia). Contralateral extrapyramidal motor symptoms (red nucleus) Contralateral loss of proprioception, discriminative touch, and vibrationBenedikt’s Syndrome
Usually resulting from a pineal tumorParinaud’s Syndrome
Paralysis of upward and downward gaze, pupillary disturbances, absence of convergence. Non-communicating hydrocephalus due to compression of the aqueductParinaud's Syndrome
Occusion of this artery will show Corticospinal and Corticobulbar Tract damageParamedian Branch of The Posterior Cerebral Artery
Occusion of this artery will show Weber's Syndrome symptomsParamedian Branch of The Posterior Cerebral Artery
Occusion of this artery will show Benedikt’s Syndrome symptomsShort Circumflex Artery
Ipsilateral medial deviation of eye. Cannot abduct the eye. Contralateral weakness of lower face. Contralaleral hemiparesis of trunk and limbs. Bilateral limb and gait ataxia. Contralateral loss of discriminative touch, propriception, and vibration sense. May include VII if lesion is big enoughMedial Inferior Pontine Syndrome
Results from occlusion of the paramedian branch of the Basilar ArteryMedial Inferior Pontine Syndrome
Medial Inferior Pontine Syndrome is the result of an occlusion of this arteryParamedian Branch of the Basilar Artery
Results from occlusion of the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA)Lateral Inferior Pontine Syndrome
Lateral Inferior Pontine Syndrome is the result of an occlusion of the arteryAnterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA)
Ipsilateral facial nerve paralysis. Loss of taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue. Loss of corneal and stapedial reflexes. Unilateral central nerve deafness. Nystagmus, nausea, vomiting, and vertigo. Ipsilateral loss of pain and temp (face). Ipsilateral limb and gait ataxia. Contralateral loss of pain and temp (body). Ipsilateral Horner’s syndromeLateral Inferior Pontine Syndrome
Caused by occlusion of the superior cerebellar arteryLateral Superior Pontine Syndrome
Ipsilateral limb and trunk ataxia. Ataxia, dysmetria, and intention tremor. Contralateral loss of pain and temp (body). Ispilateral pain and temperature sense (head). Ipsilateral Horner’s syndrome. Contralateral loss of proprioception, vibration and discriminative touch from lower extremities and trunkLateral Superior Pontine Syndrome
Results from infarction in the basilar artery at the base of pons"Locked-in" Syndrome
The corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts are affected. This causes quadriplegia, and paralysis of lower cranial nerves. Sensory tracts are not affected and the patient can still feel everything"Locked-in" Syndrome
Demyelination of central pons in patients being treated for hyponatremia (low sodium). If the treatment is too rapid, or the patient’s tissue has adapted to the hypotonicity, resulting in demyelination (bilateral). Can also occur during alcohol withdrawalCentral Pontine Myelinolysis
Symptoms include quadriplegia, dysarthria, altered mental status and diplopiaCentral Pontine Myelinolysis
Occlusion/damage to anterior spinal arteryMedial Medullary Syndrome (Dejerne Syndrome)
Symptoms include contralateral hemiparesis. Loss of proprioception, vibratory and discriminatory touch. Ipsilateral paralysis of tongue musclesMedial Medullary Syndrome (Dejerne Syndrome)
Caused by occlusion of PICALateral Medullary Syndrome (Wallenberg)
Symptoms include Dysphagia, Dysarthria, Analgesia and thermoanesthesia on ipsilateral face. Vertigo, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus. Ipsilateral Horner’s syndrome. Gait and limb ataxia. Contralateral loss of pain and temperature senseLateral Medullary Syndrome (Wallenberg)
Proximal blockage of the left subclavian arterySubclavian Steal Syndrome
Stroke like symptoms when patient is more active (working out). Patient may show BP differences between armsSubclavian Steal Syndrome
Contralateral arm spastic paralysis. Contralateral lower face paralysis. Contralateral tongue weakness (tongue will deviate away from a CBT lesion). Contralateral palate (uvula will deviate towards a CBT lesion) is due to a stoke hereMiddle Cerebral Artery (MCA) M3 Stroke
Asymptomatic, typically occurring in white matter areas. Patient is typically unaware they’ve had a stroke. No speech problems, or contralateral paralysis, etc. Accumulation of infarcted areas is a leading cause of cognitive impairmentSilent Stroke
A blood clot in a cerebral vessel. Atherosclerotic plaque damages vessel wall, leading to accumulation of fibrin and platelets.Thrombosis
Damage occurs at the at the junctions of major arterial territories. Below, area of infarct is in between middle and anterior cerebral artery perfusionWatershed Infarcts
Occur when arteries and veins do not connect properly. Instead of capillaries, some arteries connect directly to veinsArteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

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