Neuroscience - Block 1 - Part 3

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-02-09 16:19


Question Answer
Ionotropic receptors and Metabotropic receptors are types ofNeurotransmitter Receptors
Small presynaptic vesicles containNeurotransmitters
Large presynaptic vesicles containNeuromodulators
Fast acting receptor “open” or “close”. Allow ions to travel in/out . Can become temporarily desensitized to the molecules that fit themIontropic Receptor
Slow acting. Evoke other channels to open. G-protein coupled receptorsMetabotropic Receptor
Axonal transport of 50-400mm per dayFast Axonal Transport
Axonal transport of 5-40mm per daySlow Axonal Transport
Transmitter is removed through reabsorption back into the presynaptic terminal (reused)Reuptake
Enzymatic degradation of released transmitterEnzymatic Degradation
Transmitter diffuses away from the synapseDiffusion
Muscle action, attention, learning, sleepingAcetylcholine
Movement, motivation, arousal, emotionDopamine
Learning and memory (excitatory)Glutamate
Inhibitory regulatorGABA
Regulating mood and arousalNorepinephrine
Hunger, sleep, arousal, aggressionSerotonin
Emotion and painEndorphins
Norepinephrine (NE), Epinephrine (E), Dopamine (DA)Catecholamines
Serotonin (5-HT)Indolamines
Histamine (H)Monoamines Other
Glutamate (universally excitatory), Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA: universally inhibitory), Glycine, ProlineAmino Acids
Substance P, Insulin, Prolactin, HGH, VasopressinPeptides
Endorphins, EnkephalinsMorphine like Substances
Dopamine, Serotonin, Acetylcholine, Histamine, Norepinephrine are also this in addition to being neurotransmittersPrimary Neuromodulators
These chemicals diffuse over wide areas affecting multiple neurons by enhancing, prolonging or limitingNeuromodulators
Acetate and choline are catalyzed via choline-acetyltransferase (CAT) to formAcetylcholine (ACh)
Motorneuron plus the multiple muscle fibers it innervatesACh Motor Unit
(Insert 35)
Question Answer
Cholinergic receptor that is ligand-gated ion channelsNicotinic
Cholinergic receptor that is GPCR (IP3/cAMP mediate slow responses)Muscarinic
Inhibits uptake of cholineHC-3 (Hemicholine)
Inhibits ACh uptake into vesiclesVesamicol
Inhibits vesicle exocytosisBotulinum
Major effects of this are Increase BP (vasoconstriction), Bronchodilation, Increase sweat glands activity, Cutaneous vasodilation, Increase glycogenolysisNorepinephrine
Functions to integration of sleep-wake cycles, Alertness/arousal, Reward, Stress and pain responseNorepinephrine
Locus coeruleus to the thalamus, cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, midbrain, cerebellum, and spinal cordNorepinephrine Pathway
Norepinephrine in the brain is produced in this part of the brainLocus Coeruleus
Lateral tegmental area to the basal forebrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, spinal cordNorepinephrine Pathway
This as a hormone increase in heart rate, muscle strength (aids glycogenesis), and increases blood pressureEpinephrine
This as a neurotransmitter regulating emotional response and memory (esp. emotional valence)Epinephrine
The rate limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholaminesTyrosine Hydroxylase


Question Answer
Peripheral vasoconstriction receptorα1
Autoreceptors in presynaptic negative feedbackα2
Major adrenergic receptors of heart muscle that increases heart rate, force of contractionβ1
Bronchodilation, arteriole dilation to musclesβ2
Cholinergic receptor found on the post-synaptic neuron bodyN[N]
Cholinergic receptor found at the neuromuscular junctionN[M]
Muscarinic receptor involved in complex CNS responses such as memory, arousal, attention and analgesia. Also found at gastric parietal cells and autonomic gangliaM1
Muscarinic receptor that lowers conduction velocity at sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular nodes (AV), thus lowering heart rateM2
Muscarinic receptor found in GI that causes increase motility also found in bronchial tissue, bladder, exocrine glandsM3
Receptor found in the renal tubularD1
Histamine receptor that produces bronchial constriction, vasodilation, pain and itchingH1
Glutamate receptors that are ligand-gatedNMPA, AMPA and Kainate
Glutamate receptor that is G-protein coupled receptorMetabotropic
GABA receptor that is ligand ion gated receptors widely distributed in the CNS. Binds to chloride channels letting Cl- into the causing the membrane potential to become further negativeGABA(a)
GABA receptor that is activating GPCR receptors. Binds to potassium channels letting K+ out of the cell causing the membrane potential to become further negativeGABA(b)


Question Answer
Substantia nigra to caudate nucleus + putamen and is responsible for motor movementNigrostriatal
Problems in the is area of the brain leads to Parkinson’s and tardive dyskinesiaNigrostriatal
Ventro-Tegmental Area (VTA) to limbic system (esp. Nucleus Acumbens) and is responsible for rewardMesolimbic
Ventro-Tegmental Area (VTA) to cortex (esp. Prefrontal cortex) that is responsible to cognition, motivation, and emotional behaviorMesocortical
Arcuate Nucleus (infundibular) to hypothalamus to pituitary responsible for secretion of prolactin (anterior pituitary) which can lead to abnormal lactation, sexual dysfunction, irregular menstrual cycle problems, headachesTuberoinfundibular
Pathway involving raphe nuclei, pons, and medulla to cerebral cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, brainstem nuclei, and spinal cordSerotonin
Indolamine neurotransmitter derived from tryptophanSerotonin
Serotonin is produced in this nucleus in the brainRaphe Nucleus
The only serotonin receptor that is ligand gated5-HT3
Is the most common neurotransmitter (>50% of neurons) and is always excitatoryGlutamate
Major mediator of excitatory signals in the CNS involved in most aspects of normal brain function including - Cognition, Memory and LearningGlutamate
Regulates brain development and determines cellular survival, differentiation and elimination and formation or elimination of synapsesGlutamate
Excessive amounts of this correlates with possibly with autism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Alzheimer's diseaseGlutamate
Decreased amounts of this correlates with PhenylketonuriaGlutamate
Always inhibitory and works in conjunction with glutamateGamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
These GABA receptors are GPCR and are largely presynaptic (axoaxonic) and inhibit transmitter releaseGABA(b)
Released from sensory nerve terminals in skin and joints. Indirectly responsible for transmitting information to CNS pain centers via receptor NK1Substance P
Endogenous opioids produced naturally in the body that modulate pain, cardiac, gastric, vascular function, panic, and satiationEndorphins

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