Neuroscience - Block 1 - Part 1

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-02-04 23:01

Organization of the Nervous System

Question Answer
CNS sometimes referred to as theNeuroaxis
Above the tentorium cerebelliSupratentorium
Below the tentorium cerebelliInfratentorium
Primary motor cortexPrecentral Gyrus
Toes curl down when the bottom of the foot is strokedNegative Babinski Sign
Toes curl up when the bottom of the foot is strokedPositive Babinski Sign
Primary sensory cortexPostcentral Gyrus
Layer is 2-4 mm thick on averageGray Matter Layer
Temporal lobe structure, involved in long term memory formationHippocampus
Planning of motor movementsBasal Ganglia
Hemisphere which has language functionsDominant Hemisphere (Usually Left)
Areas are on the dominant hemisphere onlyBroca’s and Wernicke’s Area
Brodmann’s number 44, 45Broca’s Area
Brodmann’s number 22Wernicke’s Area
Brodmann’s number 8Frontal Eye Field
Brodmann’s number 4Primary Motor Gyrus
Brodmann’s number 1,2,3Primary Sensory Gyrus
Brodmann’s number 17Primary Visual Fields
Brodmann's number 6Premotor Gyrus
This area can also be Brodmann's number 22, 39 and 40Wernicke's Area
Language productionBroca’s Area
Language comprehensionWernicke’s Area


Question Answer
Most of the cranial nerves and nuclei are located withinBrainstem
Reflexive eye movements are coordinated by thisSuperior Colliculi
Reflexive auditory movements are coordinated by thisInferior Colliculi
Compares what is actually going on with the muscles to what was intended to happen and makes appropriate correctionsCerebellum
An area of the brainstem that is critical in regulating levels of consciousnessReticular Formation


Question Answer
Follows the contour of the skullDura Mater
Follows the contour of the brainPia Mater
Created due to the difference in the surface contours of the skull and brainSubarchnoid Space
Results from shearing/tearing of arteries in the brainstem; brainstem is pushed down by herniationDuret Hemorrhages
Bleeding of middle meningeal artery between skull and duraEpidural Hematoma
Cingulate gyrus herniates underneath falx cerebriCingulate Herniation
Uncus of the temporal lobe herniates underneath the tentorium cerebelliUncal Herniation
A part of the cerebellum, the tonsils, herniate and compress medulla, potentially causing respiratory or cardiac distressTonsilar Herniation


Question Answer
Pia and Arachnoid mater togetherLeptomeninges
Usually an enterovirus. Highly contagious, common in childrenViral Meningitis
Occurs primarily in immunocompromised patientsFungal Meningitis
Cause by spreading of tumors in CNSNeoplastic Meningitis
MCC of metastatic brain tumor originate from these two locationsLung and Breast
Stiff hamstrings result in an inability to fully extend the leg when hip is at right angle to supine patientKernig Sign
Passive neck or single hip flexion is accompanied by involuntary flexion of both hipsBrudzinski Sign
Opening pressure is elevated in this type of meningitisBacterial
CSF appearance is cloudy and turbidBacterial Meningitis
CSF appearance is normal in this type of meningitisViral


Question Answer
Additive used in MRI to allow the blood to be imagined betterGadium
Swelling of cells due to the shut down of the Na+ - K+ pumpCytotoxic Edema
Increased permeability of the BBB, fluid leaking from blood vessels into white matterVasogenic Edema
Infiltration of WBCs into brain tissue causing more fluid to accumulate in the brainInterstitial Edema
Edema that affects gray matter. Occurs within second to minutesCytotoxic Edema
Edema that affects white matter. Occurs within minutes to hoursVasogenic Edema
Edema that is in the space between cells. Occurs hours afterInterstitial Edema


Question Answer
Is produced at a rate of 500ml/dayCSF
Large pool of CSF in certain area of the brainCistern
Blockage of the cerebrial aquaductObstructive Hydrocephalus
Overproduction of CSF or lack of drainage of CSFNon-Obstructive Hydrocephalus
Other name for Obstructive HydrocephalusNon-Communicating Hydrocephalus
Other name for Non-Obstructive HydrocephalusCommunicating Hydrocephalus


Question Answer
Basilar and Anterior Spinal Arteries are thisUnpaired Arteries
Ruptured aneurysm leads to bleeding into this spaceSubarachnoid Space
Results from damage to the superior cerebral veins from a blow to back or front of headSubdural Hematoma
On an MRI-T2, shows up as a crescent shapeSubdural Hematoma
Usually results from a blow to the side of the headEpidural Hematoma
Rupture of the middle meningeal arteryEpidural Hematoma
On an CT, shows up as a bright, convex shapeEpidural Hematoma


Question Answer
Subdivisions of the brain that includes cerebral hemispheres, lateral ventricles and basal gangliaTelencephalon
Subdivisions of the brain that includes thalamus, hypothalamus, third ventricleDiencephalon
Subdivisions of the brain that includes the "midbrain"Mesencephalon
Subdivisions of the brain that includes the pons and cerebellumMetencephalon
Subdivisions of the brain that includes medulla, 4th ventricleMyelencephalon
The telencephalon and diencephalon together are calledProsencephalon
Metencephalon and myelencephalon together are known as theRhombencephalon


Question Answer
First (1') order neurons are this type of neuronPseudounipolar
All peripheral sensory neurons are this type of neuronPseudounipolar
Central nervous system neurons are generally this type of neuronMultipolar
Neuron with one axon, no dendrites, occur during developmentUnipolar
Neuron with one single ‘process’, distal portion is from periphery to cell body, central portion is from cell body to CNSPseudounipolar
Neuron with one axon, one dendrite. CN’s I, II, VIIIBipolar
Neurons with long axonsGolgi Type I
Neurons with short axonsGolgi Type II
Golgi Type II are also called thisInterneurons
The presence of lipofuscin granules in a cell is a result of thisAging (Normal)
The presence of this inclusion body is a result of the agingLipofuscin Granules
The loss of this is seen in Parkinson'sNeuromelanin (melanin)
Neuromelanin is lost in this conditionParkinson's
Seen in Parkinson's and Lewy Body DiseaseLewy Bodies
Lewy body inclusions seen in the cerebrumLewy Body Disease
Lewy body inclusions seen in the substantia nigraParkinson
Hirano bodies inclusions are seen in this conditionAlzheimer's Disease
The inclusion bodies seen in Alzheimer's DiseaseHirano Bodies
Pick bodies inclusions are seen in this conditionPick's Disease (Frontotemporal Dementia)
Negri bodies are seen in this conditionRabies
The inclusion bodies seen in rabiesNegri Bodies
Cowdry type A bodies inclusions are seen in this conditionHerpes Encephalitis
The inclusion body seen in herpes encephalitisCowdry Type A Bodies
Lafora body inclusions are seen in this conditionMyoclonic Epilepsy
The inclusion body seen in myoclonic epilepsyLafora Bodies
Touch, pressure, fast pain and temperatureSensory Axon III (A-delta) Fiber
Slow pain and temperature with unmyelinated fibersSensory Axon IV (C) Fiber
Innervate extrafusal muscle fibersAlpha Motor Axons
Innervate intrafusal muscle fibersGamma Motor Axons
200-400mm/dayFast Axonal Transport
1-5mm/daySlow Axonal Transport
100-200mm/dayFast Retrograde Transport
Axonal anterograde, powered byKinesin
Retrograde powered byDynein
These neurons are capable of regeneration after injury, due to the arrangements of Schwann cells and the basement membrane (endoneurium)Peripheral Neurons
Nucleus moves away from the region of the axon hillock, and Nissl substance moves to periphery after cell damageChromatolysis
Some cells do not recover after injury and may show a process called this during which microglia over the affected neuronNeuronophagia
Hold capillaries in place with ‘foot processes’Astrocyte
Removal of excess ions (K+ in particular) from the extracellular fluid.Astrocyte
Reuptake of neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft in the CNSAstrocyte
Assist in formation of the blood brain barrierAstrocyte
Myleinates brain neuronsOligodendrocytes
Microphages in the CNSMicroglia
Two types of supporting tissues Fibrous Connective, and Glial
Fibrous connective supporting is mostly found in thePNS
Glial supporting tissue is mostly found in theCNS

Ventricular System, CSF and the Meninges

Question Answer
Dura mater nearer the skullEndosteal Layer
Dura mater nearer the brainMeningeal Layer
Arachnoid and pia membranes are connected by ligaments calledTrabeculae
This artery branches off from the maxillary artery which is a branch of the external carotidMiddle Meningeal Artery
The functions of this include protect the brain, provide buoyancy, removal of waste matter and hormonal distributionCSF
Total volume of CSF in brain125-150ml
Normal pressure of CSF150-180mm Hg
Average production of CSF per day400-500 ml/day
Lateral Ventricles drain into the 3rd ventricle by means of thisForamina of Monroe (Interventricular Foramen)
CSF leaves the ventricular system into the subarachnoid space throughLateral Foramina (Foramina of Luschka)
CSF leaves the ventricular system into the central canal of spinal cord throughMedial Foramina (Foramen of Magendie)
This cistern is close to the third ventricle. Can be used to relieve hydrocephaliesOptic Cistern
This cistern is below the cerebellumCisterna Magna
This cistern is above the cerebellumSuperior Cistern

Neurodevelopment and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Question Answer
The neural plate appearsDay 19
At Day 19 of embryonic development this appearsNeural Plate
The closure of the neural tube begins in this area and moves both up and downCervical Area
Anterior (rostral) neuropore becomes thisLamina of the Brain
Posterior (caudal) neuropore becomes thisFilum Terminale
Anterior neuropore closes on this dayDay 24
Posterior neuropore closes on this dayDay 25
Proencephalon becomes thisForebrain
Mesencephalon becomes thisMidbrain
Rhombencephalon becomes thisHindbrain: Pons, Medulla
Cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, lateral ventricles, olfactory bulbsTelencephalon
Epithalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus, pineal gland, 3rd ventricle, optic nerveDiencephalon
Midbrain and cerebral aqueductMesencephalon
Pons, cerebellum, upper part of 4th ventricleMetencephalon
Medulla, lower part of 4th ventricleMyelencephalon
Future lining of the central canal and ventricular ependymal cells comes fromVentricular Zone
Future gray matter comes fromIntermediate Zone
Future white matter comes fromMarginal Zone
Platelike structure of the ectoderm marking the site of future developmentPlacode
Adenohypophyseal placode formsAnterior Pituitary
Olfactory placodes formsOlfactory Epithelium
The inner ear are formed fromOtic Placodes
The eye lenses are formed from theseOptic Placodes
Trigeminal placodesTrigeminal ganglion
Produces SHH proteins for making motor and interneuronsNotochord
Forms the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discsNotochord
Dorsal sensory column is formed from thisAlar Plate
Ventral motor column is formed from thisBasal Plate
Dorsal and Ventral Columns are separated bySulcus Limitans
Neuroblasts and glioblasts migrate to their final locations in the brain after being produced fromStem Cells
Differentiation of a cell is most determined by thisLocation
Cerebral cortex gray matter has this many layersSix (6)
Hippocampus and cerebellar cortex has this many layersTwo (2)
Retina and spinal cord has this many layersTwo or Three (2-3)
Migration of cells moves along a radial glial networkGlial-Mediated Migration
Migration of cells by extension develops and cell body follows which is controlled by chemoattractants and chemorepellantsSomal Migration
Cells align themselves to form neural structures after coming together in a certain locationAggregation
The growing tip of each process extends and retracts filopodia as if finding its way aroundGrowth Cone
First neurons to travel a route and are conducted by guidance chemicalsPioneer Growth Cones
Failing to establish connections and spaces filled by new neurons lead toApoptosis
Passive cell deathNecrosis
Active cell deathApoptosis
Apoptosis is safer than necrosis because apoptosis does not evoke thisInflammation
This takes place first in sensory and then motor areasMyelination

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