Neuropsych III

kisferkate's version from 2016-11-17 07:38

Section 1

Question Answer
frequently accompany broca’s aphasiaDysarthria and apraxia
DysarthriaDistorts all speech sounds indiscriminately. Inability to control the muscles of articulation
Apraxia of speechArticulatory programming disorders that produce errors that while inconsistent approximate the target word
Broca's Areaforms detailed coordinated plans for language production, But comprehension is not perfect
Broca’s aphasia (Cognitive Linguistic properties)better fluency for memorized phrases, automatic speech spared, melodic intonation therapy, writing same as speech
Schwartz, saffron and martinpoor syntax comprehension reduced abilities in judging grammaticality complex sentences
Brocas Aphasia (Speech)labored slow and nonfluent (awkward atriculation, searh for phonemes)
Brocas Aphasia (paraphasic errors )mispronunciation (phonemic: pelsil for pencil)
Brocas Aphasia (responses)make sense (context words) but are ungrammatical
Brocas Aphasia (greatest difficulty)verbs, articles, pronouns -> telegraphic speech
Brocas Aphasia (Comprehension)relatively spared
severe brocas aphasiarecurring utterances, syllables, words or phrases
severe brocas aphasia exampleTan and tono

Section 2

Question Answer
Wernicke’s aphasia speechphonetically & grammatically normal but meaningless, Generally fluent, unlabored well articulated
Wernicke’s aphasia damage auditory pathways, translates auditory input into phonological forms that can then access semantics
neologisms (“word salad”)Words used inappropiately nonsens words
Paraphrasiassubstitution of an inappropriate word in seemingly well formed sentence
circumlocutionMeaning expressed in roundabout way
Wernicke’s aphasia comprehension severely impaired
According to Wernicke-Geschwind model (Wernicke’s area)stores memories of sound sequences that constitute word
According to Wernicke-Geschwind model (Angular gyrus)recodes from visual to phonological form (sends to Wernicke's area)
Wernicke’s model of languagecontains motor neurons involved in comprehension of speech, understanding spoken language

Section 3

Question Answer
Angular gyrus (location)region in parietal lobe, near temporal lobe
Angular Gyrus (Function)Involved in number of processing related to language, number processing, spatial cognition, memory retrieval, attention
Arcuate fasciculus (Location)bundle of axons that form part of superior longitudinal fasciculus -> Connects broca’s and Wernicke
Arcuate Fasciculus (damage)conduction aphasia: deep white matter damage

Section 4

Question Answer
conduction aphasia (Location)pathway connection motor to auditory functions (arcuate fasciculus)
Conduction Aphasia (impairments)impaired naming ability & repeating, • deficits in repection of non-meaningful words and word sequences
Conduction Aphasia (Intact)normal speech comprehension and production, can draw
transcortical motor aphasia (location)area btwn the motor pathway (broca M) and the area of the brain where concept is understood (B, not single specific area) is damaged.
transcortical motor aphasia (Impairments) confluent, say words and phrases but don’t connect a conceptual meaning with the words
transcortical motor aphasia (intact)preserved repetition is a defining quality
transcortical motor aphasia: echolaliaautomatic repetiton of vocalization made by another person, without awareness
transcortical sensory aphasia (Location)the area btwn the auditory pathways (wernickie A) and the area of brain where concept is understood (B, not single specific area) is damaged
transcortical sensory aphasia (speech)can say words and phrases but don’t connect a conceptual meaning with the words.
transcortical sensory aphasia (defining quality)preserved repetition
Global Aphasia (Damage)“left side blowout” which includes broca, wernickei and arcuate fasciculus
global aphasiagenralized inability to comprehend or repeat heard speech, produce speech or name objects
Transcortical motor (relationship)broca's
Transcortical sensory (relationship)Wernicke's
Nonfluentglobal, broca’s; transcortical motor aphasia
Fluentwernicke;s, conduction aphasia, transcortical sensory aphasia

Section 5

Question Answer
Evidence for meaning storage: category specific deficitsrepresentations of tools vs. animals
Evidence for meaning storage: Loss of semantic knowledgedistributed and stored in different areas of brain divided up in storage according to how we interact with the outside world
Evidence for meaning storage: Double dissociationseparable representations for different categories of knowledge
Evidence for meaning storage: PET evidencecategory specific activations, tools left premotor, Living things represented by visual/sensory features
Variability of lesion site, family of symptoms ->need for symptom based classification
Agrammatism is a defining symptoms of broca’s aphasia
Agrammatism (symptoms)short informative word groups, Few/no complete sentences, Lacks grammatical function words, Nonfluent

Section 6

Question Answer
Luke= 28 yr. old maleHaulting nonfluent speech, Boca’s aphasia -> motor aphasia, Almost mute
Melodic intonation therapybased on the observation that some aphasia patients are still able to produce words while singing
Anomic aphasia is the most common form of aphasia
Anomic aphasiaPatient unable to find the correct words, fluent, comprehension spoken and written language preserved
Agraphiaunable to write
CommisurotomyThe two hemi are disconnected in the hope of preventing the spread of seizures from one hemi to the other
Cross cuingTactic used by split brain patients
Tactile-Verbal disconnectionSplit brain patients cannot name or describe visual and tactile stimuli presented to the right hemi, because the sensory info is disconnected from the dominant left (speech) hemi
Patient L.BAlexithymia
Alexithymiapoor ability to express feelings verbally, Lower awareness of emotional state
Alexithymia postulationright hemi plays a special role in perception of emotions
Wada testingthe injection of sodium amobarbital into one of the 2 carotid arteries and causes only one hemi to become anesthetized
Corpus Callosum and synchronycallosal connections could play role in synchronizing oscillatory activity in cortical neurons as obj passes through receptive fields
General lateralized functions (left hemi)dominant for language speech and major problem solving
General lateralized functions (right hemi)specialized for visuospatial tasks such as drawing cubes and other 3-D patterns

Section 7

Question Answer
Spatial frequency hypothesisAny complex visual pattern can be described by its component spatial frequencies
Spatial frequency hypothesis (left hemi)more adept at representing local info, High freq, Faster
Spatial frequency hypothesis (right hemi)global, Low freq, Not detailed orientated
Patient PS (right hemi damage)can possess conscious properties, right hemi has its own independent response priority determining mechanisms
Patient PSable to act in response to verbal commands exclusively presented to either hemi but can only describe verbally the left hemi
Crossed aphasiaSpeech output is rarely controlled by the right hemi in right handed people and in no case is speech output controlled by both hemi in right handers
Telegraphic speechSentences do not fit standard structure, but seem more like a telegram, content words such as noun and verbs
Telegraphic speech is a symptom ofBroca's aphasia

Section 8

Question Answer
Gustav Fechnerfirst to think about how the hemispheres become asymmetric
Paul Broca’s (1860s)when one hemi damaged sometimes the other hemi doesn’t take over like language
Monkey commissurotomies (1930s)seemed to indicate few behavioral deficits as a result of commissurotomy; did help with epilepsy
Von Wagenen (1940)first human operation, relieving seizures varied, • Surgical procedures in time the corpus was probably not severed properly
Myers & Sperry (1952) cats, visual split concept, CC severed it trains the same as control but when you switch the patch it seems as if cat has never seen the obj before, each hemi has to learn task independently act independently, EXACTLY the same learning curve for 2nd eye
Cat CC cutCC essential for integrating the cognitive experiments (learning mediated by each hemi)
Vogel and bogenUsed separation to relive intractable epilepsies in 24 patients
Sperry, gazzaniga, boganUncover the reality of the dual brain launching a revolution: 2 minds within single cranium, differences in hemispheric function
What gets cut?always cc, sometimes anterior c or hippocampus, never optic chasm
Z scope/lens one eye patched, lens allows image to fall on only one half of retina
Tachistoscopicdevice that displays image for specific amount of time, can be used to increase recognition speed, to show something too fast to be consciously recognized or to test which elements of image are memorable
Visual verbal disconnectionbc lang is largely lateralized to left hemi speaking part of brain didn’t see it so cant name it but often draw something related to the item, right hemi knows what it is but cannot speak eg. knight
Tactile verbal disconnectionCant name obj held in left hand
Visual visual disconnectionCannot match stimuli between the two visual fields ex. different or same?
Tactile tactile disconnectionunable to tell you if they objects match or not ex. give a fork to left hand and a spoon to right
Motor disconnectionPrimarily contralateral hemi controls hand (fine motor movements)
Left hand apraxiajust don’t use it, or pay attention to it anymore
Alien hand signseemingly unaware of their left hand
Holtzman & Gazzaniga (1985) study illustrating superior performance in split brain patients on mixed displays (JW)

Section 9

Question Answer
Reuter-Lorenz & Miller (1998) Hemispheric differences in verbal and spatial processing
Reuter-Lorenz & Miller (LH dominance in)language, spoken language highly sequential
Reuter-Lorenz & Miller (RH dominance in)spatial nonverbal holistic global parallel emotive low freq
Cross-CuingPatient attempt to make info accessible to both hemi
Cross-Cuing (EX)Making sound with obj, subvocal counting 0,1 2, 3, 5, 8
Analytic/holistic (LH)analytic skills – maps to function (semantic knowledge) – meaning of object
Analytic/holistic (RH)holistic, right maps to form appearance (spatial relationships)
Wolford et al. (2000) experiment – the interpretercognitive process that tries to make sense or predict and find patterns in our environment – reside in LH
The interpreter (Humans)try to match, find patterns, suboptimal (takes time)
The interpreter (JW)adopts a different strategy depending on which hemi is performing task, RH: max, LH: matches

Section 10

Question Answer
Fundamental dichotomy vs. task-based asymmetryTwo approaches for explaining hemispheric specialization
Task based asymmetrieslateralization of cognitive domains: Verbal, Spatial & Musical
Task based asymmetries (LH)high freq sounds, grammar, speaking
Task based asymmetries (RH)low frequency sounds, melody,word storage, writing, reading, prosody/melody, singing
Fundamental dichotomydescribes the hemispheres as predisposed to a certain style of processing
Fundamental dichotomy (LH)more tuned for high spatial freq and has more detail oriented processing
Fundamental dichotomy (RH)Prefers low spatial freq and holistic in nature
Global/local processing and visual field asymmetries for hierarchical figuresBoth hemispheres capable of operating on the local/global level but efficiency differs
Visual laterality methodTachistoscopc presentation, looking for accuracy
performance asymmetries w/ intact CC (unify sensory world)two visual fields process separately in split brain
unify sensory world exSynchronization – singer and gray, bars of light
performance asymmetries w/ intact CC (share products of cognitive processes)doesn’t matter which gets information something is shared
Callosal relay model (main)TRANSFERRED -> PROCESSED
Direct access modelPROCESSED -> TRANSFERRED
Activation orienting model (less respected)When your attending to something in left visual field, right hemisphere is active then your attention is over there
performance asymmetries w/ intact CC (Allocation of resources)more complicated task might need to recruit other hemi

Section 11

Question Answer
Banich & Belger (1989) CC and resource allocation
Each hemi has some competency with most tasksAs task difficulty increases, both hemi are recruited to meet task demands
Within field (Unilateral)one task recruits both hemi & matches are faster, slower when both needed
For harder tasksacross field matches are faster, the other relies on only one hemi to make the match
why symmetrySpiral vs. radial vs. bilateral organization, Bipedalism/motor control, Sensory systems
Primacy of a particular lateralized function drives other asymmetries ex. dominos

Section 12

Question Answer
Differences in laterality of speech control (Left handers)70% LH speech control and 15% RH control 15% both for speech control
Differences in laterality of speech control (Right Handers)95%, LH speech control and 5% for RH
Left handed can have diff brain organization10% population
Case VJ (left handed split brain patientwriting dissociates from other language abilities -> writing in LH, all others LH
Aphasiaany language disorder (comprehension or production) that is not due to impairment in sensory or motor function, or to the deterioration of general intellectual functioning
Franz gallsingle frontal location for language
Carl Wernickearea was for storage of auditory memory for words
Wernicke’s aphasiafluent, can produce sounds but what they say doesn’t make any sense and lot of trouble with comprehension – word salad
Conduction aphasiamiddle subject understands & produces speech but cant repeat
tanNo content but seemed like speech, not aware that what was being said is completely meaningless
conduction aphasia (damage)arcuate fasciculus or LH

Section 13

Question Answer
Phonemesunits of sound that make up words
Lexiconstored representation of words
Semanticsmeanings that correspond to lexical items
Syntaxgrammar rules for combing words
Prosodyintonation of speech (RH province)
Discourselinking of sentences into coherent narrative
Articulationmovements of mouth and vocal tract for producing speech

Section 14