Neuropsych 4

kisferkate's version from 2016-12-20 05:36

Section 1

Question Answer
Shallice and burgess 3 patients with high IQs but frontal lobe damage a list of tasks none of them completed the list given to them, all failed
Thompson-Schillpatients with lesions in the inferior frontal cortex of the LH produce errors in high but not low selection
High selectiontire = turn, spin roll; rope = swing, tie hang
Low selectionscissors = cut, kite = fly
Phineas Gage (bx)destruction of balance between his intellectual faculties and his animal propensities, fitful, irreverent, grossly profane, impatient of restrain or advice that conflicts with his desires, obstinate yet capricious and vacillating, devising many plans then abandoning them, a child in his intellectual capacity with the animal passions of a strong man
Phineas Gage (Damage)ventralmedial PFC, no damage to dorsolateral PFC. Conclusion damage to VMPFC caused gage’s changes
Phineas Gage (Historical Relevance)First documented case of frontal lobe damage
prefrontal lobotomy (1935)report of frontal lobotomies in chimps – promising results decrease in aggressive bx
prefrontal lobotomy (1936)Egas Moniz Nobel prize
prefrontal lobotomy (1930-1950)approx.. 100,000 lobotomy-type procedures were performed: schizo, phobia, depression, violence, anxiety
prefrontal lobotomy (1946)Walter freeman lucatomy (eye entrance, cut white matter tracks to FLs)
prefrontal lobotomy (downfall)caused drastic changes in personality (withdrawn, irresponsible, childish) and patients were unable to reenter society (remained in mental institutions or were housebound
prefrontal lobotomy (positives)decreased affective problems and was clinically effective, minimal effect on intellectual functioning, no huge effect on iQ

Section 2

Question Answer
Boundaries of the Frontal lobes3 natural boundaries
Posteriorcentral sulcus
Inferior Sylvian/lateral fissure
Medial/inferior corpus callosum
Anterior cingulatefrontal part of cingulate gyrus activates multiple cogs. Tasks mostly ones that direct attention
Premotor areasInput from prefrontal regions and parietal association areas
Primary motor cortex, input from premotor area and broca’s area, -> spinal cord, voluntary actions
Prefrontal cortex1/3 cortical surface
Prefrontal cortex (development)Well developed only in primates, but develops late in ontogeny
Three major prefrontal regions 1Orbitofrontal cortex
Three major prefrontal regions 2Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
Three major prefrontal regions 3Ventral-medial Prefrontal Cortex

Section 3

Question Answer
Prefrontal connectivity (afferents)four major inputs
Prefrontal connectivity (efferents)three outputs
major input 1: Receives highly processed info fromthe 5 sensory systems (not from primary sensory regions)
major input 2: Receives info fromfrom hippocampus (long term memory) – every time you have a goal you need memory to remember goal memory from hippo
major input 3: Receives info about eh internal physiological and motivational state via limbic system
major input 4: Multiplethalamic nucleus connections (many of these are re-entrant connections)
output 1: Sends connections back to all sensory areas from which it receives input (may be involved in control of attentional processes)
output 2: Sends multiple connections toa variety of motor structures (premotor supplementary motor, basal ganglia, and superior colliculcus). Influences the initiation and regulation of motor behavior
output 3: Sends direct connections to to limbic structures. Provides mechanism for influencing autonomic and endocrine function and for the regulation of emotional behavior

Section 4

Question Answer
Impairments in function following prefrontal lesions (memory)no severe impairment in the ability to learn new material, maybe be apathy
Impairments in source memorywhere memory came from, not knowledge itself
impairments in metamemoryImpairments in appraisal of ones own memory abilities
Working memory impairments info being loaded for current activity then when over its unloaded, have to keep front order in mind while manipulating numbers in order to repeat back
Working memory transient representations of task-relevant information. These representations may be from the distant past or may be immediate, held in frontal lobes, representation can be anything from distant past to mediate
Working memory condition 1: Requires a mechanismto access stored info
Working memory condition 2: Requires a method to keep info active
Goldman-Rakicworking memory allows behavior to be determined by “cognitive goals”
Delayed response taskcorrect response requires keeping baited well in mind
Fail delayed response tasksMonkeys and humans with lesions of lateral prefrontal cortex and babies under 12 months
Dorsolateral PFC Neuron ActivityThis cell did not respond during the cue interval, rather its activity increased when the cue was turned off and persisted until the response
Delay activity location specific, working memory (o The goal is maintained “on line” available for use)

Section 5

Question Answer
Without goal representationbx determined by reflex, habit, past-reward, immediate stimulus conditions
Baddeley’s model2 working memory systems operating in parallel
Short term retention approx. 10 sec
Phonological Loop (Verbal wm)Material Specific Buffers, LH
Visuo-spatial scratch pad (imagery)Material Specific Buffers, RH
Baddeley's Study Control groupperforms better on task when using visu-spatial
Baddeley's Study Stylus ConditionVerbal strategy better
D’Esposito meta-analysis of working memoryLH -> verbal, RH Spatial / Dorsal prefrontal cortex -> Maintenance +
“n back task”press button if item on screen appeared before.

Section 6

Question Answer
Negative symptoms most often associated with DLPF LesionsDisturbed arousal, apathy, pseudo-depression
Positive symptoms most often associated with orbitofrontal lesionsEuphoria and disinhibition, hyper-sexual, nervous, hyperactive, irritable
Disihibitionfailure to assess the effects of their behavior on social interactions (often ventral)
Social status in primates, frontal lobe lesionsimmediately plummet and are rejected
Frontal Lobe Lesions in primates symptomsRestlessness, pacing, aggression, failure to groom
Galvanic skin response (GSR)measured continuously. Measures sweat on hands
Patients with Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (VMPFC)do not show signs of galvanic skin response
Patients with VMPFC lesions performance of Gambling taskchoose cards from deck with immediate gain during the entire task. Don’t generate anticipatory GSR for risky choices
Gambling task vs. working memory task double dissociation
double dissociation results (VMPFC patients)impaired on gambling task, intact performance on working memory tasks
double dissociation results (DLPFC)impaired on working memory task, but intact performance on gambling task
Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesisDecision-making depends on emotion (specifically VMPFC and amygdala)
Somatic Markers tag "gut feeling" link btwn limbic system and ventro-medial pfc
Somatic markers allow us to take a load off ofWM

Section 7

Question Answer
Effects of frontal lobe damagerelease signs, antisaccades, perseveration, disinhibition,
Grasp reflexforceful grasping of an object that contacts palm or sole of food
Sucking reflexelicited by touching lip/cheek
Grouping reflexinvoluntary following with hand/eyes a moving object
Stimulus captureutilization behavior
Closely assoc. w/ frontal lobe damage, re-emergence ofprimitive reflexes following frontal damage.
frontal lobes normally inhibit stimulus bound reflexesie. hitting someone on the knee
The ANTI-saccade task Saccade away from stimulus
patients w/ prefrontal damage including FEFCannot correct error and make anti-saccades
Superior colliculus colliculus- control rapids, stimulus-driven eye movements
Anti-saccades impaired bc difficulty formingrepresentation of goal to control voluntary behavior
Executive Functions Initiate behaviors whileinhibiting competing responses that may interfere with effective problem-solving
Executive Functions Regulate attention in order tofilter distractions during problem-solving and shift attention across relevant stimulus components
Executive Functions Upload and manipulate mental representations tobring them to bear in a a task-effective fashion

Section 8

Question Answer
Theory of Mind (Metarepresentation)The ability to mentally depict the psychological status of others
The Sally-Anne TaskPredicting bx, Ability to understand that when someone else knows is not the same as what you know, mental state vary among person
Metarepresentationability to represent the mental representations of another individual
ASD show an impairment in the intuitive understanding that people have mental states
ASD do not show an understanding thatthese independent mental states will guide an individual’s behaviors
Executive dysfunctionrelatively specific impairment in frontal functioning

Section 9

Question Answer
Cell ProliferationCell birth, occurs very early in the brain, controlled by genetic timing cycles
Cell Migrationgoes to final place, early in development trip is short. brain is small
Cellular Differentiation Growthimmature, extension of dendrites, linking with neighbors, distinctive morphologies
Axonal Migrationsend long range projections
Proliferation of connections/synapses Regressive Eventspeak synaptic generation happens from 1-3 yo depending on cortical area
Cell Deathprogrammed, expected to die based on genetic timing cycle
Synaptic Cullingpruning, shape final circuits.
Gestation is measured fromtime of the last menstrual cycle and last approximately 40 weeks.
embryo/fetus is present for38 weeks
At birth, the brain weighs350 grams
Wadingtons Landscape Development is like a sequence of cascading events, epigenetics
strong relationship between mental retardation and in utero radiation exposure
Otake and SchullHiroshima radiation studies
radiation exposurefetus that were before 8 weeks fine, after 15 less of a chance

Section 10

Question Answer
von Senden (1932)Cataracts in children
Cataracts fully correctable in infant10-20 months after, permanent impairment in vision
Austin RiesenMonkeys in dark for 3 to 6 months, hard to train even simple discriminations
Hubel and Wiesel Ocular Dominance, stripes
Cells in the retina, lateral geniculate (LGN), and layer 4c of the visual cortex are monocular
Cells above and below layer 4c are binocular
Autism sex ratio, 4 boys to every1 girl
Leo Kanner (1946)11 Case studies
Bruno Bettelheim (1967)Empty Fortress, Freudian view WWII, environmental problem, refrigerator mother
Bernard Rimland (1964)Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implication for a Neural Theory of Behavior

Section 11

Question Answer
Autism DiagnosisPDD
Major Cognitive Theories of Autism (Theory of Mind)Social Aspects
Major Cognitive Theories of Autism (Executive Dysfunction)Relatively specific impairment in frontal lobe functioning. rigidity, repetitive bx, goal directed bx
Major Cognitive Theories of Autism (Weak Central Coherence)the tendency to process incoming information in its context pulling information together for higher level meaning
Strong central coherence works at the expense of memory and attention to detail
Weak central coherence works at the expense ofcontextual meaning in favor of piecemeal processing.
Typically developing individuals, when retelling a story that they’ve just heardrecall accurately the gist of the story, but not always the specific details.
ASD individuals are better at recalling the exact words of the story, but have trouble with the overall meaning/gist
system of frontal neurological processes that manifest themselves in the ability to Initiate behaviors while inhibiting competing responses that may interfere with effective problem-solving
system of frontal neurological processes that manifest themselves in the ability to Regulate attention in order to filter distractions during problem-solving and sift attention across relevant stimulus components
system of frontal neurological processes that manifest themselves in the ability to Upload and manipulate mental representations to bring them to bear in a task effective fashion

Section 12

Question Answer
Other Biological theories of ASD (Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance)Partially supported by neuropathology and comorbid seizures.
Other Biological theories of ASD (Connectional Changes in the Brain)Over-connectivity/Under-connectivity, can be tied to weak central coherence.
Under-connectivitylower level thinking is better connected than higher functions (frontal lobes)
Over-connectivityToo many connections within a cortical area
MZ/DZ ratio is very ______ especially if one includes symptomology and not just a diagnosis.high

Section 13

Question Answer
frontal lobe damage tests of IQ patients may perform normally.
Patients with frontal lobe lesion’s had difficulty with rey complex figure
Patients with frontal lobe lesion’s had difficulty with items of the revisedblock design of the WAIS-R
Patient with frontal amnesia have problems withmemory recall tasks
problems with theSelf ordered pointing task
Self ordered pointing task6-12 cars are presented and the subject must point to a new object on each new card
Tasks that mimicked the errandsall frontal lobe patients became embroiled in social complication
Wisconsin card sorting testThe subjects working memory must train knowledge about the relevance of certain features in their previous responses
Stroop taskTask-switching test: by either color or word – impaired on color cue condition
Phillipa35 years old, assault from burglar
Phillipa neglect toright side
Phillipa social behaviorinappropriate bedside manner