NeuroPath- Infectious Diseases
What does the PNS consist of? Cranial + Spinal Nerves, Autonomic + Enteric Nervous System
What does the CNS consist of? Brain + Spinal Cord.
What type of neuron is Sensory? Unipolar
What type of neuron is Motor? Multipolar
What type of neuron is Special Sensory? Bipolar
What is the function of the Sensory Neurons? Sense changes through sensory receptors.
What is the function of Motor Neurons? Respond to stimuli.
What is the function of Integrative Neurons? Analyze incoming sensory information, store some information, make decisions regarding appropriate response.
Define Neuropathology The branch of medicine concerning diseases of the nervous system.
What are the seven most important types of nervous system diseases? Infectious, Tumors, Neurodegenerative, Autoimmune, Traumatisms, Circulatory, and Genetic.
Is damage to the CNS/PNS capable of repair? CNS- usually irreversible. PNS- may be capable of repair.
Nervous structures are separated from the rest of the body by what? The Blood Brain Barrier + Meninges.
What type of pressure is maintained by the Cerebral Spinal Fluid? Intracranial Pressure
What is the main functional difference between Neurons + Neuroglia? Neurons- long living and non reproducing. Neuroglia- capacity to reproduce.
What are the 9 main manifestations of a N/S pathology? Sensory + Motor Disturbances, Disturbance in the coordination of movement, Brain stem dysfunctions, Deficits of Higher Brain functioning, Altered state of consciousness, Emotional Instability, Memory Problems, and ANS disorders.
Describe an Upper Motor Neuron lesion Spastic Paralysis on opposite side of body. ( Hypertonic mm's, exaggerated reflexes, pathological reflexes)
Describe a Lower Motor Neuron lesion Flaccid paralysis on same side. (No voluntary or reflex action from innervated mm's, atonic mm's.)
What are the five main categories of Infectious Disorders of the CNS? Bacterial Infections, Viral Infections, Trauma/Surgery, Fracture to face/cribriform plate, and Inner ear Infections.
Define Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges- all three layers may be involved.
What is the cardinal sign of Meningitis? Headache
Inflammation may extend to.. The first and second layer of the cortex.
Thrombosis of the Cortical Veins may cause.. A higher risk of infarction.
Scar tissue may restrict.. CSF, causing hydrocephalus.
Approximately _____ of 100k people diagnosed in developed countries. 2-6 people.
Approximately how many people affected in 3rd world countries? 10 X the number in developed countries.
What type of preventative action can be taken? Vaccination for cases of Bacterial Meningitis from 'Hemophilus Flu B'
What are some other risk factors? Compromised Immune Function + Splenectomy.
What is the most common causeof inflammation in the CSF? Viral Infection.
Herpes Simplex 2 Virus makes up ___% of all meningitis cases. 20%
Epstein-Barr Virus generally affects what age group? Late adolescence.
How do viruses generally spread to the brain? Via the Blood system.
What are the three main causes of Bacterial Meningitis ? Upper Respiratory Mucosal Bacteria, Birth Canal Infections, and Strepto-Pnemonia/Neisseria Meningitis (in aging populations).
Bacterial Meningitis is generally confined to __________, in initial stages. Sub-arachnoid Space.
What are the general characteristics of Viral Meningitis? Hyper-acute, symptoms within hours.
What are the general characteristics of Acute Pyogenic Meningitis? Symptoms 4-24 hrs.
What are the general characteristics of Fungal + Tuberculosis Meningitis? Symptoms days to weeks after onset.
What are the clinical manifestations of meningitis? Fever, headache, stiff/painful neck.
What are the two tests to indicate meningitis? Kernig's sign, and Brudzinski's sign.
If left untreated what are the possible consequences? Seizures, vomitting, nerve palsies, deafness, coma, death etc.
What is the GOLD STANDARD test to diagnose meningitis? Lumbar Puncture test.
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