Neuropath - Feb 14th pt 2

taylormaloney's version from 2017-02-14 19:32

Section 1

Question Answer
Define Lyme DiseaseA serious infectious disease affecting the nervous system.
What causes Lyme Disease?Bacteria - Borrelia Burgdorferi
What is it's incubation period?From infection to onset of symptoms is usually one to two weeks. Can be much shorter/much longer.
How is lyme disease transmitted?Usually by the bite of ticks.
What types of ticks are responsible for lyme disease transmission in Canada?Western Blacklegged Tick ( BC ), Blacklegged Tick ( other pts of Canada ).
How do ticks become infected?Feeding on infected wild animals such as deer, birds, rodents etc.
What time of year are you most likely to receive a tick bite?When weather warms, spring through fall.
What are the stages of lime disease?1) Early localized 2) Early disseminated 3) Late
Symptoms severity?Ranging from no/minimal symptoms to severe symptoms- dependent on the person.
What are the key factors in the successful management of Lyme Disease?Early + Accurate Diagnosis, followed by immediate treatment.
What factors influence the type of S+S?Dependent on stage of disease.
Early S+SErythema Migrans - (bulls eye rash). Fever, myalgias, malaise, arthalgia, headache, tender local adenopathy.
Early Disseminated S+S(When bacteria begins to spread via bloodstream. (Potential skin condition, borrelial lymphocytoma), Acute neurological problems termed neuroborreliosis.
NeuroborreliosisIn 10-15% of untreated patients. Includes- Facial palsy, Meningitis, Inflammation of SC nerve roots, Mild Encephalitis, potentially impacting heart's electrical conduction.
Late Disseminated S+SAfter several months- patients develop severe/chronic symptoms.
What type of S+S seen in LDPermanent impairment of motor/sensory function (lower extremities), nerve pain radiating from spine, polyneuropathy (extremities), Lyme Encephalopathy (cognitive, insominia, generally feeling 'unwell', depression, Fibromyalgia etc)
How is it diagnosed?History of possible tick exposure, clinical signs and symptoms, and lab testing for detection of antibodies.
How is it treated?Antibiotics, prevention is key for lyme disease. No current vaccination.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is botulism?A rare, often fatal condition caused by a potent neurotoxin (produced by clostridium botulinium bacteria), found in improperly preserved or canned food/ contaminated wounds.
What are the four types of botulism?Food borne, wound borne, infant, and unclassified.
What is the pathogenesis of botulism?Neurotoxin affect cholinergic nerve endings, causing inhibition of Ach release- resulting in symmetric, flaccid paralysis.
What is the affect on sensory/mental functions?Generally normal function.
When is the typical onset of symptoms?12-36 hours after ingestion of food.
What are the clinical manifestations?Malaise, Weakness, Blurred/Double Vision, Dry Mouth, nausea/vomiting, dysphagia, dysarthria, photophobia, flaccid paralysis leading to respiratory failure within 6-8 hrs.
How is botulism diagnosed?History, Clinical Manifestations, Toxin Identification via serum/stool analysis, EMG.
How is botulism treated?Injectible serum, antitoxin, gastric lavage, wound debridement + AB.