Neuropath Class 2

taylormaloney's version from 2017-01-10 18:52

Section 1

Question Answer
Define TremorA rhythmical, unintentional alternating movement that may affect muscles in any part of the body.
What is the main characteristic of tremors?Rapid altering contraction/relaxation of muscles.
What are the potential causes of tremors?Neurological diseases (ie parkinsons, MS, etc) Drug side effects (ie amphetamines, antipsychotics, lithium etc.) and Stroke or Head Injuries.
What is an intention tremor?A tremor that gets worse during body movement. Cerebellar pathology.
What is an essential tremor?A case where tremor is the only symptom. Idiopathic.

Section 2

Question Answer
Define ChoreaA neurological disorder characterized by jerky involuntary movements, affecting especially the face/shoulders/hips.
What is the main characteristic of Chorea?Quick movements of the hands and/or feet that are comparable to 'dancing'.
What are the potential causes of chorea?Huntington disease, complication of rheumatic fever, chorea gravidarum (pregnancy), medication side effects, metabolic/endocrine disorders or stroke.

Section 3

Question Answer
Define AthetosisA slow, involuntary, convoluted, writhing movement of the fingers/hands/toes/feet, and occasionally arms/legs/neck/tongue.
What term is used to describe the typical Athetosis movemement?Athetoid Movements.
What are the potential causes of Athetosis?Intranatal asphyxia + Neonatal Jaundice, Corpus Striatum Lesion, Hippocampus/Thalamus lesions, Cerebral Palsy.
How would athetosis be treated?Restraining the movements of affected limb/s. Drugs, surgery.

Section 4

Question Answer
Define DystoniaA state of abnormal muscle tone resulting in mm spasm and abnormal posture.
What are the main characteristics associated with Dystonia?Sustained mm contractions causing twisting/abnormal posture/and repetitive movements. May resemble tremor. Often initiated or worsened by voluntary movements.
What are the potential causes of Dystonia?Congenital diseases, birth-related/physical trauma, infection/poisoning, and medication side effects.

Section 5

Question Answer
Define MyoclonusBrief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or group of muscles.
What is the main characteristic associated with Myoclonus?It is a medical sign, NOT a diagnosis of disease.
What nervous disorders may cause Myoclonus?MS/Parkinsons/Alzheimers, Creutsfeldts-Jakob Disease, Huntingtons, Some forms of epilepsy, also may be a sign of Intracranial Hypotension.

Section 6

Question Answer
Define TicsSudden, repetitive, non-rhythmic motor movements or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.
What are the main characteristics of tics?Often a disorder of childhood, commonly presents as eye blinking and throat clearing.
Define Motor TicsMovement based tics, affecting discrete muscle groups.
Define Phonic TicsInvoluntary sounds produced by air moving through nose/mouth/throat.
What causes tics?Idiopathic, with a possible genetic component.

Section 7

Question Answer
What are the three components to an intervertebral disc>Annulus Fiborosus- outside ring of fibrocartilage. Nucleus Pulposus- inner soft center. Hyaline Cartilage- tiny layer on top and bottom of each disc.
How many discs are in the human spine?24
What is the major function of the intervertebral discs?Absorption of shock, creation of space between vertebrae, and protect the nerves that run through the region.

Section 8

Question Answer
Define DDDDegenerative Disc Diseases-
What is it?General term for the condition in which a damaged vertebral disc causes chronic pain. (Neck pain and/or arm pain), Low back pain (and/or leg pain, sciatica) in lumbar spine.
What is spondylosis?Degeneration of the disc space and it's contents. May present as narrowing of the disc space between vertebrae.
What causes DDD?Aging and trauma injury to spine.
What structure of the musculoskeletal system is first to be affected by degenerative changes of normal aging?Intervertebral disc. Initially- nucleus pulposus-> Loss of Turgor and height of disc.
What degenerative changes take place in the annulus fibrosus?Loss of elasticity (posterior especially).
Where does DDD most commonly occur?Cervical + Lumbar spine. They have the most motion and therefore as more likely to get worn down.
Cervical DDD-Less common than lumbar because subject to less torque and force. Often caused by fall or twisting injury and/or aging.
What are the symptoms of Cervical DDD?Neck pain, stiff/inflexible neck, irritated + pinched nerves in region may cause NTW of the neck/shoulders/arms.
M.C. location of the cervical DDD?Between C5/6 and C6/7
What are some potential nervous system complications?Brachialgia (Cervical Radiculopathy- Arm pain. & Radiculopathy caused by compression or irritation of a nerve in the neck where it exits the spinal cord.
What are the symptoms of radiculopathy?Pain radiating down path of compresssed nerve, and/or parasthesia.
What complications are often seen in those with Cervical DDD?Contribution to spinal stenosis, and Herniation of the intervertebral disc.
If a central herniation of disc is suspected, what type of diagnostic tool would be indicated>Myelogram.

Section 9

Question Answer
Pain in neck and arm- dif diagnosis
Viscerogenic?Lesions of pharynx, larynx, and upper pt of trachea + esophagus.
Vasculogenic?Angina Pectoris and Myocardial Infarction.
Neurogenic?Spinal cord neoplasm mimics central herniation of cervical disc or a tumor.
Define Pancoast tumorA neoplasm at the apex of the lung.
Psychogenic?Neurotic Patient can have neck pain.
Spondylogenic?Osseous Lesions- Trauma, infections, neoplasms. Soft tissue Lesions (myofascial lesions).
How is DDD of cervical region diagnosed?Physical exam, imaging such as xray and mri
TX - conservativeIce/Heat, medications for pain or inflammation,Massage therapy, physotherapy or surgery.