Neuropath 2- Class 1

taylormaloney's version from 2017-01-03 20:49

Section 1

Question Answer
What is an UMN?A motor neuron that originates in the brain and carries motor information to LMNs.
Where are LMNs located?Ventral Gray Horn of SC, and in the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves in the brain stem.
Major function of LMNs?Linkage of UMNs and Muscles, initiates contraction of striated skeletal muscles. Req'd for Voluntary Movement.
Define NeuropathiesDiseases/Dysfunctions of one or more peripheral nerves, typically causing parasthesia or paresis.
Define MyopathiesDisease or muscle tissues.

Section 2

Question Answer
Signs and symptoms found within the somatic motor points to disease of what region?LMNs- Brain stem or Spinal Cord.
Sensory- Somatic/Autonomic points to what region?Dorsal root ganglion, and sensory neurons.
ANS- Autonomic Motor points to what region?Pre and Post ganglionic AMNs.

Section 3

Question Answer
Define NeualgiaPain in the distribution of a particular nerve. Usually in the absence of objective signs.
Define NeuritisInflammation of a nerve.
Define MyelinopathyDisorder affecting the myelin of peripheral nerve fibres.
Define AxonopathyDisorder affecting the axons.
Define ParesisIncomplete paralysis or slight paralysis of motor functions.
Define ParethesiaAn altered sensation, often described as burning/tingling/ pins+needles.
Define PlexopathyDisorder affecting network of nerves, blood vessels, or lymph vessels.
Define Paralysis + it's causes.Loss of impairment of motor function, due to nerve lesion or muscular pathology.
What are the four types of paralysis?Monoplegia- one limb, Para/Diplegia- two arms or legs. Hemiplegia- one side of body. Quad/Tetraplegia- All four limbs.
Define Causalgia + it's characteristics.Painful condition, caused by PN Injury that causes hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. *Burning pain, Severe and aggravated by very minor stimuli.

Section 4

Question Answer
What are the five main causes of Peripheral Nerve Injuries?Heredity, Trauma, Infections, Toxins, and Metabolism.
What are the two main responses to nerve injury, regardless of cause?Demyelination + Degeneration.
Define Spinal Cord InjuryDamage to vertebrae and neural tissues, causing loss of movement and loss of sensation distal to area of injury.
What are the common causes of spinal cord injuries?Trauma (MVAs etc), Slips/Falls, Diving in shallow water, and horseback riding accidents.
How long does is usually take for recovery relating to spinal cord injuries?Approx 7-20 days to up to 3months, if recovery is possible.
What would indicate the end of the spinal shock stage?Reappearance of the reflex activity.
What are the implications relating to RMTs in regards to the spinal shock stage?Massage is postponed until after the spinal shock stage has ended, and medical clearance is required before treatment.

Section 5

Question Answer
Define NeurapraxiaReversible conduction blockage, segmental demyelination with the axon left intact.
What are the characteristcs of Neurapraxia?Conduction within the nerve both prox and distal to nerve remains functional. Complete recovery of function within days to weeks,
What is a common example of Neurapraxia?Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
Define AxonotmesisDamaged axon + myelin sheath w/ the preservation of the connective tissues.
What are the characteristics of Axonotmesis?An interuption of the axon from nerve injury, subsequent wallerian degeneration.
Describe the regeneration of the axonSpontaneous and Good quality regeneration.
What is an example of axonotmesis?Crush injuries and displaced bone fractures.
Define NeurotmesisPartial or complete severance of nerve, with disruption of the axon + myelin sheaths, and the connective tissues.
What is the prognosis for neurotmesis?Poor- it is the most severe form of nerve injury.
What is a common cause of Neurotmesis?Deep Lacerations or Ischemic Injuries.

Section 6

Question Answer
Define NeuropathiesDisease or Dysfunction of one or more peripheral nerves. Typically causing numbness/weakness. Can be sensory, motor, autonomic, or a combination.
Define MononeuropathyDisease involving a single nerve.
Define PolyneuropathyMultiple nerves disease. Generalized disorder of peripheral nerves.
How does Polyneuropathy often present?Symmetriical distal mm weakness, symmetrical distal sensory loss (Glove/stocking), and Hyporeflexia.
What are some of the main causes of Polyneuropathy?Toxins, DM, AIDS, Chronic Inflammatory Disease.
Define RadiculoneuropathyPain along a dermatome, implying a problem is at the level of the nerve root.
Radix means..Root.
Define PolyradiculitisAffecting several nerve roots.
PNS Dysfunction signs and symptoms regarding sensitivity?Follows peripheral nerve distribution, follows dermatome.
S+S regarding paresis/paralysis?Muscle weakness, loss of coordination + balance, affected muscles = distal to injured nerve.
Peripheral Nerve involvement means what type of affect on CNS?No dysfunction in CNS if only PNS involvement.

Section 7

Question Answer
Define MyopathyMedical term for muscle disease
Symptoms of proximal muscles weakness- Muscle tenderness and cramping.
Symptoms of distal muscles weakness-Hypotonicity or flaccidity, difficulty walking on heels or toes, deep tendon reflexes diminished or absent.
Describe the motor disturbances relating to the ANSDeficiit in vascular control and sweating, hypotension, and cardiac irregularities.

Section 8

Question Answer
Describe the basic neurological basic assessment.Done in order from highest level or neurological testing down to the lowest covering mental status/speech, cranial nerve function, sensory function, motor function, and reflexes.
Describe the testing for mental status/speechAlert?, Open ended questions, assess for dysarthia and cognitive functions.
Describe the sensory assessmentMainly pain and touch.
Describe the motor assessmentInspection, tone, power.
Describe the testing for cerebellar functionGait, balance, coordination.
Assessment for abnormal muscle movementsTics, tremors, and fasciculation. Assessment of reflexes.

Section 9

Question Answer
Define Intercostal NeuralgiaNeuralgia affecting the intercostal nerves.
What is the dominant symptom of intercostal neuralgia?Sharp, shooting, burning pain coming frrom the spaces between the ribs.
What are the causes of intercostal neuralgia?Diabetes (metabolic diseases), compression of nerves, nutritional factors, viral infections, chronic post-surgical pain.
What is the approximate recovery time for diabetes related intercostal neuralgia?1-2 years.
What is the common symptoms of intercostal neuralgia caused by diabetes?Attacks of neurological pain at different areas,

Section 10