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Neurology-patholohy

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drnieves's version from 2017-06-21 13:30

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Question Answer
Autoimmune inflammation/demyelination of CNSMS
MS sxOptic neuritis, INO, hemiparesis, hemisensory sx, bladder/ bowel incontinence.
MSAffects oligodendrocytes
T cell + ab reactionMS
PoliomyelitisLMN lesions only; destruction of anterior horns
Flaccid paralysispoliomyelitis sx
Multiple sclerosisWhite matter of cervical region; random lesions
ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)UMN + LMN sx. Fasciculations with eventual atrophy and weakness of hands. Fatal
ALSDefect in superoxide dismutase 1
ALS txRiluzole (decrease presynaptic glutamate release)
Complete occlusion of anterior spinal aSpares dorsal columns and Lissauer tract; upper thoracic ASA territory is watershed
Adamkiewics aSupplies ASA below T8
Tabes dorsalistertiary syphilis. Degeneration of dorsal column. Impaired sensation and proprioception that leads to ataxia.
Charcot joints, shooting pain, argyll robertson pupilsTabes dorsalis
Absence of DTRs and + robmergTabes dorsalis
SyringomyeliaSyrinx expands and damages anterior white commissar of spinothalamic tract. Bilateral loss of pain and T. C8-T1
Seen with Chiari 1Syringomyelia
Vit B 12Demyelination of dorsal columns; lateral corticospinal tracts and spinocerebellar tracts; ataxic gait, parasthesia, impaired position and vibration sense.
Anterior circulation arteriesMCA, ACA, Lenticulostriate artery.
Area of lesion of MCAmotor cortex- upper limb and face. Sensory cortex- upper limb and face. Temporal lobe (Wernicke area). Frontal lobe (Broca).
Contralateral paralysis (upper limb and face). Contralateral loss of sensation upper limb and face. Aphasia in dominant. Hemineglect in nondominantMCA stroke
Area of lesion ACAmotor cortex- lower limb. Sensory cortex- lover limb.
Contralateral paralysis- lower limb, Contralateral loss of sensation- lower limb. Behavioural changes, urinary incontinenceACA stroke
Lecticurlostriate area of lesionStriatum, internal capsule.
Contralateral hemiparesis, hemiplegiaLenticulostriate stroke
Lenticulostriate strokecommon location of lacunar infarcts; 2ry to HTN.
Posterior circulationASA, PICA, AICA, PCA, Basilar a.
ASA area of lesionLateral corticospinal tract, medial lemniscus, caudal medulla (hypoglossal nerve).
Contralateral hemiparesis (upper and lower limbs). Decreased contralateral proprioception. Ipsilateral hypoglossal dysfunction (tongue deviates ipsilaterallyASA stroke
ASA strokeCommonly bilateral.
Medial medullary syndromeParamedian branches of ASA and vertebral a.
PICA area of lesionLateral medulla- vestibular nuclei, lateral spinothalamic tract, spinal trigeminal nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, sympathetic fibers, inferior cerebellar peduncle.
Vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus, decrease pain and T sensation from ipsilateral face and contralateral body. Dysphagia, hoarseness, decrease gag reflex, Horner, ataxia, dysmetriaPICA stroke.
Lateral (wallenberg) syndromePICA stroke.
AICA area of lesionlateral pons- craneal nerve nuclei; vestibular nuclei, facial nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, cochlear nuclei, sympathetic fibers. Middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles.
Vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus. Paralysis of face, decrease lacrimation, salivation, decreased taste from ant. 2/3. Ipsilateral decreased pain and T of face, contralateral decreased in pain and T of body. Ataxia and dysmetriaAICA stroke
Lateral pons syndromeAICA stroke
PCA area of lesionOccipital cortex, visual cortex.
Contralateral hemianopia with macular sparingPCA stroke
Basilar a area of lesionPons, medulla, lower midbrain, costicospinal and corticobulbar tracts, ocular CN nuclei, paramedic pontine reticular formation.
Quadriplegia, loss of voluntary facial, mouth, and tongue movementsBasilar a stroke.
Locked in syndromebasilar stroke
Communicating aAcom, Pcom
Com area of lesionMC lesion is aneurysm (saccular berry)
Visual field defectsAcom stroke
Com area of lesionCommon site of saccular aneurysms.
CN III palsy, ptosis and mydriasisPcom stroke
Lenticulo-striate a area of lesionStriatum/ internal capsule
Contralateral hemiparesis, hemiplagiaLenticulo-striate stroke sx
Thalamic strokeIn ventral posterior thalamus that receives spinothalamic and dorsal columns, and ventral posterior medial, that receives from trigeminal pathway.
Complete contralateral sensory loss, unsteady gaitThalamic stroke sx
Cavernous sinusBlood from eye and superficial cortex goes here and then to IJV.
CN 3, 4, 5 1/2, 6 and internal carotidcavernous sinus.
Cavernous sinus syndromePresents with ophthalmoplegia, decreased corneal sensation, horner and maxilarry sensation.
CN VIMost susceptible to injury from cavernous sinus syndrome.
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Question Answer
Transient ischemic attackEpisode of focal near dysfunction without acute infarction (-MRI).
Pyramidal cells of hyppocampus, purkinje of cerebellumTIA
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