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Neuroanatomy

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robbypowell's version from 2015-06-24 14:07

Brain basics

Question Answer
Cerebrum is divided into what 4 major lobes?Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, Occipital (FPOT)
the ___ lobe handles COGNITIVE tasks and VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT (motor)FRONTAL
the ___ lobe handles HEARING, MEMORY, & LANGUAGETEMPORAL
the ___ lobe handles TOUCH SENSATION and PROPRIOCEPTIONPARIETAL
the ___ lobe handles VISIONOCCIPITAL
the ___ has more neurons than the rest of the brain combinedCerebellum
the ___ lobe is found deep within the Lateral SulcusINSULAR LOBE (or Insular Cortex)
What Sulcus runs coronally and separates the Frontal & Parietal Lobes?CENTRAL sulcus
What Sulcus Separates the Temporal & Frontal lobe?LATERAL sulcus
Where is the Supramarginal Gyrus found?(Rostro-inferior Lateral portion of) Inferior Parietal Lobule
Where is the Angular Gyrus found?(Caudo-inferior Lateral portion of) Inferior Parietal Lobule
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Preoccipital Notch
Question Answer
What Lobe deals with both the Sensation and Motor Control of the body?PARA CENTRAL Lobe (Precentral Gyrus & Postcentral Gyrus, made up of portions of Frontal & Parietal Lobes)
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directions in brain...

Question Answer
Dorsalsuperior on Z-axis (up and down)
Ventralinferior on Z-axis (up and down)
ContralateralOn opposite side relative to something on X-axis
IpsilateralOn same side relative to something on X-axis
Medialtoward the center of the brain (X-axis)
Lateraltoward the side of the brain (X-axis)
Rostraltoward front of the brain (Y-axis) (toward the nose)
Caudaltoward the back of the brain (Y-axis) (toward the tail)
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directions in brain other way

Question Answer
Superior on Z-axisDorsal
Inferior on Z-axisVentral
On opposite side relative to something on X-axisContralateral
On same side relative to something on X-axisIpsilateral
Toward the center of the brain (X-axis)Medial
Toward the sides of the brain (X-axis)Lateral
Toward the front of the brain (Y-axis)Rostral
Toward the back of the brain (Y-axis)Caudal
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2

Question Answer
CortexGray matter on the outside of brain (Cortex means "bark" in latin)
Cerebral Cortex (Neocortex)Gray matter around the outside of cerebrum
AllocortexGray matter around Hippocampus and (some kind of bulbs)
Cerebellar CortexGray matter around Cerebrum
Sulcus (Sulci, plural)Enfolding of gray matter (minor groove on brain)
Gyrus (Gyri, plural)Elevated fold of gray matter (ridge on brain)
___ matter is primarily made up of Dendrites of brain cellsGray Matter
___ matter is primarily made up of Axons of brain cellsWhite matter
White matter has a lighter appearance because of its ___ coatingMYELIN (covering axons for rapider signal transmission)
Bridge between Left and Right Brain hemispheresCorpus Callosum
Procedure that results in "split brain" patientsCorpus Callosotomy
Language is almost always processed on the ___ side of the brainLEFT (superior temporal lobe & lateral frontal lobe)
Two important spots for Language in the brainBroca's area & Wernicke's area
Broca's patient symptomsCannot speak fluently or name objects, but CAN understand others (Can sing, though)
Wernickes patient symptomsCannot UNDERSTAND language, but CAN produce speech (and known for rambling gibberish)
Vision is processed on the ____lateral side relative to where it is receivedCONTRALATERAL
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Elsalante intro

Question Answer
Fibers connecting similar zones in the two hemispheresCOMMISURAL fibers
In what part of the brain are there cell bodies? No cell bodies?Cell bodies yes: external (of lobes), Gray Matter... No Cell bodies: Internal (of lobes), White Matter
What is the difference between the relationship of Gray Matter and White Matter of Brain and Spinal Cord?Brain: Gray on outside, White on inside... Cord: White on outside, Gray on inside
Does damage typically occur to the Gray Matter or White Matter of the Brain?White matter, (because cell bodies make up a very small portion of brain relative to axons and dendrites)
What "sits on top" of the brain stem?the THALAMUS
What are the three components of the Brain Stem?Midbrain, Pons, Medulla
Lesions in what portion of the brain will cause VERY poor coordination?Cerebellum (command center of motor control)
this type of brain activity involves PEOPLE, PLACES & TIMECognition (usually associated with Frontal lobe?)
this type of brain activity involves the INTERPRETATION of DATA"THINKING"
this type of brain activity involves JUSTIFICATION OF ACTIONS, after the factReasoning
During what week do the neural plate and neural groove develop on the dorsal (posterior) aspect of the trilaminar embryo?4th week (sometimes very end of 3rd week)
What structures induce the overlying ectoderm to differentiate into the neural plate?Notochord & Paraxial Mesenchyme
The ____ ____ differentiates into the CENTRAL Nervous SystemNeural Tube
The ____ ____ gives rise to cells that form most of the Autonomic & Peripheral Nervous systemNeural Crest
What is the Signaling Center for the Neural Plate?Notochord & Paraxial Mesenchyme
What is the ORIGIN of the Neural Plate?Ectoderm
What does the Neural Plate give rise to directly?Neural Tube & Neural Crest
What does Neurulation give rise to?Neural Tube & Neural Crest
The Notochord & Paraxial Mesenchyme are the signaling centers for the ___ ___ (beginning of week 4)Neural Plate
During what embryological week does NEURULATION take place?Week 4
The Rostral 2/3 of the neural plate and tube will form...?The Brain
The Caudal 1/3 of the neural plate will form...?The Spinal Cord
Where does the Neural Tube begin to fuse?at the level of the FIFTH SOMITE
On what day do the Rostral and Caudal Neuropores close (approximately)27th day (end of 4th week)
Closure of the neural tube coincides with what developmental step (relating to neural tube)Vascularization of the Neural Tube
The Rostral Canal of the Neural tube becomes what, after the walls thicken?Ventricular System
The Caudal Canal of the Neural tube becomes what, after the walls thicken?Central Canal of the Spinal Cord
What is the origin of GLIAL CELLS?Neural Crest
What is the origin of Sensory Ganglia?Neural Crest
What is the origin of Autonomic Nervous system?Neural Crest
What type of cells line the walls of the Neural Tube?Ependymal Cells
What are the two layers of the Neural Tube, which is deep... which is superficial (during development)?Mantel (deep) --> Gray Matter & Marginal (superficial) --> White Matter (initially, in neural tube, Gray is deep and White is superficial)
Rupture of the thin-walled vessels that develop during cerebral cortex migration leads to what condition?Cerebral Palsy
What is the Origin of Dorsal Root Ganglia?Neural Crest cells
What is the origin of postganglionic autonomic nerves?Neural Crest
What is the origin of preganglionic autonomic nerves?Neural Tube (mantel layer)
What is the origin of Cranial nerves?Neural Crest
What is the origin of sensory nerves?Neural Crest
What is the origin of Somatic afferent nerves?Neural Crest
What is the origin of Somatic efferent nerves?Neural Tube
What is the origin of neurons that develop within the spinal cord?Neural Tube
What is the origin of neurons that become sensory neurons?Neural Crest
Generally, sensory information enters the ___ side of spinal cord and motor information leaves the ___ side of spinal cordSensory, Dorsal (Afferent, posterior); Motor, Ventral (Efferent, anterior)
What is the origin of Somatic sensory nerves (GSA's) ?Neural Crest
What is the origin of Somatic motor nerves (GSE's)?Neural Tube
Region of skin that is supplied by the same segment(s) of spinal cordDermatome
Portion of a skeletal muscle innervated by a single spinal cord level or, on one side, by a single spinal nerveMyotome
What is the origin of General Visceral Afferent nerves?Neural Crest
What is the origin of General Visceral Efferent nerves?Neural Tube
What is the origin of PREganglionic Visceral Motor neurons?Neural Tube
What is the origin of POSTganglionic Visceral Motor neurons?Neural Crest
What is the origin of Visceral Sensory neurons?Neural Crest
T/F Visceral Motor Neurons originate only from the Neural Tube cellsFalse, come from both Tube and Crest (tube --> pregang., crest --> postgang)
What 4 Cranial Nerves are source of Parasympathetic Autonomic fibers?3, 7, 9, 10
Which component of the Autonomic Nervous system is associated with T1 to L2?Sympathetic
Which component of the Autonomic Nervous system is associated with S1 to S4?Parasympathetic
Which component of the Autonomic Nervous system is associated with Cranial Nerves?Parasympathetic
Which component of Visceral Motor system is associated with T1 to L2?Sympathetic
Which component of Visceral Motor system is associated with S1 to S4?Parasympathetic
Which component of Visceral Motor system is associated with Cranial Nerves?Parasympathetic
What major Somatic Plexus is associated with C1-C4?Cervical
What major Somatic Plexus is associated with C5-T1?Brachial
What major Somatic Plexus is associated with L1-L4?Lumbar
What major Somatic Plexus is associated with L4-S4?Sacral
What major Somatic Plexus is associated with S5 -CoCoccygeal
What are the 5 major Somatic Plexuses?Cervical, Brachial, Lumbar, Sacral & Coccygeal?
What spinal nerves are associated with the Cervical Plexus?C1-C4
What spinal nerves are associated with the Brachial Plexus?C5-T1
What spinal nerves are associated with the Lumbar Plexus?L1-L4
What spinal nerves are associated with the Sacral Plexus?L4-S4
What spinal nerves are associated with the Coccygeal Plexus?S5-Co
T/F: Plexus of the enteric system can generate intrinsic reflex activity independent of the CNS.True
What are the 2 Visceral Nerve Plexuses?Tympanic & Pharyngeal
A cell's ability to create action potentials from the Influx & Efflux of Ions across the cell membrane is ______Excitability
What is the most common type of neuron? (multipolar, bipolar, pseudo-unipolar)Multipolar
What type of neuron is associated with Special senses? (multipolar, bipolar, pseudo-unipolar)Bipolar
What type of neuron is associated with General Sensory nerves? (multipolar, bipolar, pseudo-unipolar)Pseudo-unipolar
Where are cell bodies in the Peripheral Nervous System?Ganglia
What the freak is a Perikaryon?Cell body of a Neuron (just a fancy term for cell body)
What are the three things that Axons can connect to?1) Another neuron, 2) Muscles, & 3) Glands
On myelinated nerves, what is the term for the gaps between myelin?Nodes of Ranvier
Where are Unmyelinated axons more commonly found, CNS or PNS?CNS (axons are often uncoated in the CNS)
Is there any barrier over unmyelinated axons in the PNS?Yes, they are engulfed in clefts of Schwann cells (but not wrapped multiple times in Myelin)
What cells are responsible for myelination in the PNS?Schwann cells
What cells are responsible for myelination in the CNS?Oligo-dendro-cytes
What cells connect neuronal bodies to blood vessels in the CNS?Astrocytes
What cells connect neuronal bodies to blood vessels in the PNS?Satellite-cells
What cells are responsible for CSF formation?Ependymal cells
What cells are the nervous system equivalent of phagocytes?Microglia
What are the 3 meningeal layers from superficial to deep?Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater
How do capillaries of the CNS compare to those in the rest of the body?Less Permeable (component of blood-brain barrier)
What structure is the source of CSF?Choroid Plexus
Where is the CSF reabsorbed before feeding into the Superior Sagittal Sinus?Arachnoid Villi
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fancy names of neural tube sections

Question Answer
What is the fancy name for the Forebrain?PROSencephalon
What is the fancy name for the Cerebrum?Telencephalon
What is the fancy name the Thalamus & Hypothalamus?Diencephalon
What is the fancy name for the Midbrain?Mesencephalon
What is the fancy name for the "hindbrain"?Rhombocephalon
What are the two components of the Rhombencephalon?Metencephalon & Myelencephalon
What is the fancy name for the Pons, Medulla & Cerebellum?Metencephalon
What is the fancy name for the Medulla Oblongata?Myelencephalon
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matching

Question Answer
ProsencephalonForebrain
TelencephalonCerebrum
DiencephalonThalamus & Hypothalamus
MesencephalonMidbrain
Rhombocephalon"Hindbrain"
Metencephalon & MyelencephalonRhombocephalon
MetencephalonPons, Medulla & Cerebellum
MyelencephalonMedulla Oblongata
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