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NeuroAnatomy

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jonjonnavarro's version from 2016-11-13 06:43

Lesion Localization

Question Answer
Contralateral UMN deficits in distal muscles or fine motor skillsPrimary motor cortex lesion
Apraxia and contralateral weaknessPremotor cortex lesion
Broca's aphasia, nondominant side involved in prosody, nonverbal communicationInferior frontal gyrus lesion
Gaze directed towards the lesionMiddle frontal gyrus lesion
Anterograde memory deficitHippocampus lesion
FearlessnessAmygdala lesion
Verbal comprehension impairment on dominant side, sensory dysprosody on nondominant sideWernicke's area
Contralateral superior quadrantanopiaTemporal lobe lesion
Prosopagnosia or inability to identify facesOccipitotemporal junction lesion
Hemihypesthesia and astereognosis of contralateral face/ bodyPrimary somatosensory cortex lesion
Contralateral neglect particularly non dominant side, contralateral astereognosis, astatognosis or inability to recognize body in spaceSuperior parietal lesion
L-R confusion, acalculia, alexia, finger agnosia, agraphia -Gertsmann syndrome Inferior parietal lesion dominant side
Anosognosia, construction apraxia, neglect, apraxia for dressing, topographic memory problemsInferior parietal lesion nondominant side
simultagnosia - inability to perceive visual world in coherent fashion, often as single objects without Gestalt view, optic ataxia, acular apraxia -Balint syndromeParieto-occipital infarcts bilateral
Contralateral lower quadrantonopsiaInferior parietal lesion
Impairs consciousnessPosteromedial cortex injury
Cortical blindness without awareness of deficit -Anton syndromeVisual cortex lesion
Alexia without agraphiaOccipital lobe lesion
Contralateral hemiparesis, expressive aphasia-dominant, gaze deviation towardssuperior middle cerebral artery lesion
Contralateral sensory loss, homonymous hemianopia, Wernicke aphasia-dominant, neglect-nondminantInferior middle cerebral artery lesion
Contralateral hemiparesis, expressive aphasia-dominant, gaze deviation towards, contralateral sensory loss, homonymous hemianopia, Wernicke aphasia-dominant, neglect-nondminantProximal middle cerebral artery lesion
Contralateral leg weakness, apraxia, sensory loss, urinary incontinenceAnterior cerebral artery lesion
Abulia, akinetic mutismAnterior cerebral artery bilateral lesion
Homonymous hemianopia, visual recognition difficulty, contralateral sensory lossPosterior cerebral artery lesion
Resting tremor, bradykinesia, hypokinesia, rigidity, shuffling gait, mask-like facies, -ParkinsonismSubstancia nigra lesion
Sudden, dance-like jerky movements without purpose on distal extremities but may be generalized, -ChoreaCaudate nucleus lesion
Writhing snake-like movements, emphasizing slow alterations between flexion and extension -AthetosisCaudate and basal ganglia lesion
Dramatic flailing movement of a limb, emphasizing proximal joints or one side of bod, -BallismSubthalamic nucleus contralateral lesion
Sustained abnormal posturing not related to fixation -DystoniaGlobus pallidus contralateral lesion
Hemiparesis, hemisensory loss, memory loss, changes in mood, pain, aphasia, apathy, coma, visual field deficits, neglectThalamic clinical syndrome
Hemisensory pain syndrome -Dejerine-Roussy syndromeThalamic lesion
Pure sensory loss of contralateral face, arm, legThalamus lacunar stroke
Temperature dysregulation, mood alteration, change in sexual function or pubertal development, hypopituitarism/ hormona change, diabetes insipidus, bitemporal hemianopia, somnolence, gelastic siezures, changes in apetite, obesityHypothalamus lesion
Truncal ataxiaVermis lesion
Limb ataxia/ dysmetriaParavermis lesion
Limb ataxia/ dysmetria, intention tremor, nystagmus, dysarthria, scanning speech, deficits of executive functioning, spatial cognition, language, personalityCerebrocerebellum lesion
Ipsilateral ataxia, fall toward ipsilateral side, hypotonia, dysmetria, dysdiadokinesia, scanning speech, decreased DTRs, pendular reflex, intention tremor, nystagmus, vertigoPancerebellar lesion
Cranial nerve 3 plus contralateral ataxia and tremorPCA branches and top basilar lesion or Claude syndrome -Midbrain
Cranial nerve 3 plus contralateral hemiplegia PCA branches and top basilar lesion or Weber syndrome -Midbrain
Cranial nerve 3 plus contralateral ataxia plus contralateral hemiparesisPCA branches or basilar lesion or Benedict syndrome -Midbrain
Supranuclear upgaze deficit, pupils do not contrict in accommodation, convergence-retraction, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, skew deviation -Parinaud syndromePinealoma - posterior choriodal branches lesion
Nausea, vomiting, vertigo, ipsilateral Horner, nystagmus, dysphagia, hoarse voice, hiccups, ipsilateral ataxia and gait instability, ipsilateral facial sensory loss, contralateral body sensory lossPICA infarct or Wallenburg syndrome -Lateral medullary
Tongue deviation to side of lesion, contralateral proprioceptive loss and contralateral hemiparesisParamedian branches of basilar and anterior spinal artery infarct or Dejerine syndrome -Medial medullary
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Question Answer
Anosmia, injured in trauma, frontal mass, meningitis, hydrocephalusCN 1 lesion
Ipsilateral anosmia, ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral papilledemaCN 1 lesion or Foster Kennedy Syndrome
Unilateral blindness, Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect, Injured in demyelination, Multiple Sclerosis, Impinging massCN 2 lesion
Eye turned down and out, ptosis, fixed and dilated pupils, paralysis of accomodation (cycloplgegia)CN 3 lesion
Elevation and extorsion of eye at rest, patient tilts head to contralateral side, vertical diplopia with downgaze, most visible misalignment with downward contralateral gazeCN 4 lesion
Loss of sensation on ipsilateral face above eye, including corneal reflex, sensation of upper lip to eye, lower lip, chin, weak chewing musclesCN 5 lesion
Ipsilateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopiaCN 6 lesion
Paralysis of facial expression, loss of efferent wing of corneal reflex, decreased taste, hyperacusisCN 7 lesion
Vertigo, nystagmus, disequilibrium, hearing loss, tinnitusCN 8 lesion
Ipsilateral hearing loss, tinnitusAcoustic neuroma
Lack of afferent gag, syncope secondary to carotid sinus, lack of taste on posterior tongueCN 9 lesion
Hoarse voice, dyarthria, dysphagia, loss of efferent gag reflex, heart rate abnormalitiesCN 10 lesion
Difficulty turning head to contralateral side or elevating ipsilateral shoulderCN 11 lesion
Unilateral tongue weakness, deviation toward weak sideCN 12 lesion contralateral UMN
Unilateral tongue weakness, deviation toward weak side, hemiatrophyCN 12 lesion LMN
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Question Answer
Spastic paresis, hyperreflexia, positive Babinski signUMN lesion
Flaccid paralysis, areflexia, atrophy, fasciculations, fibrillationsLMN lesion
Loss of vibration, tactile discrimination and position sense, positive Romberg SignDorsal column injury
Ipsilateral loss of vibration, tactile discrimination and position sense, ipsispastic paresis, contralateral loss of pain and temperatureSpinal cord hemisection (Brown Sequard)
Bilateral spastic paresis, bilateral loss of pain and temperature, bilateral flaccid paralysis at level of infarctAnterior spinal artery occlusion
Flaccid paralysis at the level of lesion, bilateral loss of temperature, pain 1 to 2 levels below lesionSyringomyelia
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Question Answer
Cranial nerve 3 plus contralateral ataxia and tremorClaude syndrome -Midbrain
Cranial nerve 3 plus contralateral hemiplegia Weber syndrome -Midbrain
Cranial nerve 3 plus contralateral ataxia plus contralateral hemiparesisBenedict syndrome -Midbrain
Supranuclear upgaze deficit, pupils do not contrict in accommodation, convergence-retraction, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, skew deviationParinaud syndrome
Nausea, vomiting, vertigo, ipsilateral Horner, nystagmus, dysphagia, hoarse voice, hiccups, ipsilateral ataxia and gait instability, ipsilateral facial sensory loss, contralateral body sensory lossWallenburg syndrome -Lateral medullary
Tongue deviation to side of lesion, contralateral proprioceptive loss and contralateral hemiparesisDejerine syndrome -Medial medullary
L-R confusion, acalculia, alexia, finger agnosia, agraphiaGertsmann syndrome
simultagnosia - inability to perceive visual world in coherent fashion, often as single objects without Gestalt view, optic ataxia, acular apraxiaBalint syndrome
Cortical blindness without awareness of deficitAnton syndrome
Hemiparesis, hemisensory loss, memory loss, changes in mood, pain, aphasia, apathy, coma, visual field deficits, neglectThalamic clinical syndrome
Hemisensory pain syndromeDejerine-Roussy syndrome
Bilateral CN 7 palsyGuillain-Barre syndrome
CN 7 lesion with retro-orbital pain secondary to petrous lesion often as a consequence of untreated acute otitis mesiaGradenigo syndrome
Gradual-onset severe unilateral radicular pain, muscle atrophy, unilateral saddle-shaped sensory lossCauda equina syndrome
Sudden-onnset bilateral saddle-shaped anesthesia with incontinenceConus medullaris syndrome
Arm is limply adducted, internally rotated at shoulder, elbow pronation, wrist flexionErb palsy C5-C6
Claw hand deformityKlumpke's Palsy C7-T1
Miosis, Anhydrosis, PtosisHorner Syndrome
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Question Answer
Ipsilateral loss of tactile discrimination and position and vibration from legGracile fasciculus lesion
Ipsilateral loss of tactile discrimination and position and vibration from armCuneate fasciculus lesion
Ipsilateral spastic paresis with pyramidal signsLateral corticospinal tract lesion
Contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation one segment below lesionLateral spinothalamic tract
Ipsilateral flaccid paralysis in affected myotomeAnterior (ventral) horn lesion
Bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation within dermatomes of involved segmentsVentral white commisure
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Question Answer
Biceps and brachioradialis reflexC5 - C6
Triceps reflexC7 - C8
Dermatome of nippleT4
Umbilical reflex (deviation toward side of cutaneous stimulation)T8 - T12
Dermatome of umbilicusT10
Cremasteric reflex (ipsi elevation of testi with thigh stroke)L1 - L2
Patellar reflexL2 - L4
Ankle reflexS1
Anal wink (perianal cutaneous stimulation elicits)S1 - S4
Bulbospongiosus (squeeze glans to elicit)S1 - S4
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Question Answer
Loss of sensation and/or weakness of face and body contralateral to the lesionSupratentorial
Loss of sensation and/or weakness of face ipsilateral to the lesion and of the body contralateral to the lesion, Ipsilateral cranial nerve deficit the lesion, Cerebellar incoordination ipsilateral to the lesionPosteior Fossa
Sensory level, Loss of pain and temperature contralateral to the lesion, Weakness ipsilateral to the lesion, Loss of position sense and vibration ipsilateral to the lesionSpinal
Loss of sensation to all modalities in the distribution of a single root or nerve or stocking/glove pattern, Muscle weakness confined to a single root or nervePeripheral
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Question Answer
Ipsilateral segmental deficit of sensory or motor or bothPeripheral lesions
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