Updated 2009-06-30 17:41
Cerebral cortexIt enables us to be aware of ourselves and our sensations, to communicate, remember, and understand, and to initiate voluntary movements. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter: neuron cell bodies, dendrites, associated glia and blood vessels, but no fiber tracts.
ThalamusSensory relay; 80% of the diencephalon; somatotopically arranged. In addition to sensory inputs, virtually all other inputs ascending to the cerebral cortex funnel through thalamic nuclei.
Basal gangliaSpecific gray matter areas located deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. Responsible for unconscious motor function of movement timing, power.
Include caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus.
HypothalamusResponsible for overall homeostasis. Provides continuous feedback, control of chemistry, and vital organ function. Chief ganglion in ANS. Informs many indocrine functions.
Ponsbridge to and from cerebellum. Includes CN 5,7,8
CerebellumAfferent: receives notice of cortical intentions for movement and unconscious proprioceptive info.
Efferent: balance
Medullapyramidal decussation. Contain nucleus for conscious porprioception/orientation.
ANS reflex center for visceral motor regulation.

Limbic system

Question Answer
Hypothalamusregulate vital organ function and chemistry r/t emotion
Hippocampusmemory. (medial temporal lobe)
Fornixwhite matter tract
Mammillary bodiesrelate to olfactory function
Olfactory bulbsrelate to olfactory function
Cingulumemotional cortex. (medial cerebrum)
Amygdalafear. (temporal lobe)

Spinal Nerves

Cervial plexusC1-C5
Cervical plexusC3- phrenic nerve; motor to diaphragm
Brachial plexusC5-T1
Brachial plexusMedian n.: forearm flexors, sensation
Brachial plexusUlnar n.: medial epicondyle; wrist flexon; intrinsic hand muscles
Brachial plexusRadial n.: largest; arm extensors; bracheoflexon
Lumbar plexusL1-L4
Lumbar plexusFemoral n.: quads/front
Lumbar plexusObturator n.: adductors/rear
Sacral plexusL4-S4
Sacral plexusGluteal n.
Sacral plexusSciatic n.

Cranial Nerves


IOlfactory- smell
IIOptic- vision
IIIOculomotor- eyelid and eyeball movement
IVTrochlear- innervates superior oblique, turns eye downward and laterally
VTrigeminal- chewing, face & mouth touch & pain
VIAbducens- turns eye laterally
VIIFacial- controls most facial expressions, secretion of tears & saliva, taste
VIIIVestibulocochlear- auditory, hearing, equillibrium, sensation
IXGlossopharyngeal- taste, senses, carotid blood pressure
XVagus- senses aortic blood pressure, slows heart rate, stimulates digestive organs, taste
XISpinal Accessory- controls trapezius & sternocleidomastoid, controls swallowing movements
XIIHypoglossal- controls tongue movements

Fill in the blank.


The ____ is the largest part of the brain. It contains several lobes.cerebrum
The ____ lobe is the major motor lobe.frontal
When we consciously contract a muscle, the signal begins in the ____ gyrus.precentral
The ____ lobe contains the primary somatosensory cortex. It receives information about general senses including touch, pressure and proprioception.parietal
The ____ lobe contains the primary auditory cortex; it receives this sensory information from the cochlea.temporal
The ____ lobe contains the primary visual cortex.occipital
Visual information from the right visual field passes to the ____ lobe.left
The ____ is the origin of ten of the twelve cranial nerves.brain stem
The most cranial region of the brain stem, the ____ , contains the nerve cell bodies for ____ of the cranial nerves. These cranial nerves supply muscles of ____.midbrain, 2, the eye
The middle region of the brain stem is the ____. It contains cell bodies for ____ cranial nerves.pons, 4
The most caudal region of the brain stem is the ____. It contains cell bodies for cranial nerves ____. This region of the brainstem connects directly to the spinal cord.medulla oblongata, IX-XII


Primary VesicleSecondary VesicleAdult Structures
Forebrain (prosencephalon)TelencephalonCerebral hemispheres, consisting of the cortex and medullary center, basal ganglia, lamina terminalis, hippocampus, the corpus striatum, and the olfactory system
Forebrain (prosencephalon)DiencephalonThalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, neurohypophysis, pineal gland, retina, optic nerve, mamillary bodies
Midbrain (mesencephalon)MesencephalonMidbrain
Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)MetencephalonPons, cerebellum
Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)MyelencephalonMedulla


Question Answer
Review the structure and function of the eye.


Question Answer
Review structure and function of spinal cord.


Question Answer
Review the figure of the homunculus.<img src="">