bananas's version from 2015-05-26 15:41


Question Answer
Mesocortical pathwayVentral tegmental of midbrain -> cortex
Blockage of Mesocortical pathwayNegative Sx of schizophrenia (social withdrawal, depression)
Mesolimbic pathwayVentral tegmental of midbrain -> limbic system
Blockage of Mesolimbic pathway Relief of positive Sx of schizophrenia (delusions, hallucinations)
Nigostriatal pathwaySubstantia nigra of pars compact -> neostriatum
Blockage of Nigostriatal pathwayParkinson's dz
Tuberoinfundibular pathwayArcuate nucleus of hypothalamus -> pituitary
Blockage of Tuberoinfundibular pathwayIncreased release of prolactin from anterior pituitary
Locus ceruleusSite of NE synthesis
Reticular formationSite of NE synthesis
Solitary tractSite of NE synthesis
Raphe nucleiSite of Serotonin synthesis
Basal nucleus of MeynertSite of ACh synthesis
Required for GABA synthesisVit B6
Nucleus accumbensSite of GABA synthesis
Reticular formationPart of Reticular activating system (RAS)
Locus ceruleusPart of Reticular activating system (RAS)
Raphe nucleiPart of Reticular activating system (RAS)
Functions of Reticular activating system (RAS)Consciousness, wakefulness, attentiveness
keep spinal cord alive by LP...between L3 and L5
decussates in medulladorsal column
decussates at anterior white commissurespinothalamic tract
nucleus cuneatus or gracilis synapsedorsal column
cell body of anterior horn synapselateral corticospinal tract
second synapse at NMJlateral corticospinal tract
pyramidal decussation of fiberslateral corticospinal tract

Hypothalamic Nuclei

Question Answer
Lateral AreaHunger. Inhibited by leptin. "The pedal!"
Ventromedial areaSatiety. Stimulated by leptin. "The breaks!"
LeptinHormone made by adipose cells. Regulates energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (As if body is predisposition to always be hungry, unless this hormone is secreted) "It's the foot on the pedal or the breaks"
Anterior hypothalamusCooling, parasymptathetics.
Posterior hypothalamusHeating, sympathetics
Suprachiasmatic nucleusCircadian rhythm. "Master clock"
Preoptic nucleusReleases GnRH
Supraoptic nucleusProduces ADH
Paraventricular nucleusProduces Oxytocin. (Also CRH and TRH)
Arcuate nucleusReleases dopamine, Releases PULSATILE GnRH, regulates appetite too
Dorsomedial nucleusAlso regulates hunger; Damage = obesity + 'savage' behavior
Mammillary bodiesMemory

Hypothalamic lesions

Question Answer
Anorexia, failure to thrive (infants)Lesion of lateral area
Hyperphagia, 'savage' behaviorLesion of ventromedial area OR stimulation of dorsomedial nucleus
HyperthermiaLesion of Anterior hypothalamus
HypothermiaLesion of Posterior hypothalamus
Central DISupraoptic nucleus
Wernicke-KorsakoffMammillary bodies


Question Answer
One area of brain; often temporalPartial seizure
Preceded by auraPartial serizure
Intact consciousness Simple partial seizure
Altered consciousness Complex partial seizure
Affect brain diffuselyGeneralized seizure
Petit mal (absence)Generalized seizure
Lip smackingPetit mal
StaringPetit mal
MyoclonicGeneralized seizure
Brief, involuntary muscle twitchingMyoclonic
Grand mal (tonic-clonic)Generalized seizure
Stiffness and shaking Grand mal
Stiffness onlyTonic
Mistaken for syncopal episodesAtonic
TonicGeneralized seizure
Atonic Generalized seizure
Persists for > 5 minutesStatus epilepticus
Recurring seizures w/o regaining consciousness btwn seizuresStatus epilepticus
Autosomal dominant - TSC1 or TSC2Tuberous sclerosis
Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivityTuberous sclerosis
TSC1hamartin protein
TSC2tuberin protein
Seizures, intellectual disability, angiofibromasTuberous sclerosis
Ash leaf spots, retinal hamartomasTuberous sclerosis
Assctd w renal angiomyolipoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma, astrocytomaTuberous sclerosis
Port wine stain in opthalmic division of CN V Sturge-Weber Syndrome
Seizures, hemiparesis, glaucoma, intellectual disability Sturge-Weber Syndrome

Seizure Drugs

Question Answer
PhenytoinBlock sodium channels
CarbamazepineBlock sodium channels
LamotrigineBlock sodium channels
Valproic acidBlock sodium channels
Blocking sodium channelsDecreases action potential generation in neurons
Increasing GABA activityDecreases neuronal excitability + seizure activity
GabapentinIncreases GABA activity
PhenobarbitalIncreases GABA activity
Valproic acidIncreases GABA activity
BenzodiazepinesIncreases GABA activity
TigabineIncreases GABA activity
VigabatrinIncreases GABA activity
LevetiracetamIncreases GABA activity
Blocking T-type calcium channels Decrease neuronal action potentials
GabapentinBlock T-type calcium channels
EthosuximideBlock T-type calcium channels
Phenytoin (high doses)Block T-type calcium channels
EthosuximideDrug of choice for absence seizures
Valproic Acid2nd line for absence seizures
BenzodiazepinesDrug of choice for status epilepticus
Magnesium sulfateEclampsia seizure
PhenytoinGingival hyperplasia
PhenytoinFetal hydantoin syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndromecleft lip/palate, congenital heart disease, mental/dvlpmtl delay
PhenytoinMegaloblastic anemia
PhenytoinPeripheral neuropathy
PhenytoinDrug-induced lupus
PhenytoinSteven-Johnson's syndrome
Valproic acidTeratogenic
Carbamazepine Teratogenic
Valproic acidCan cause spina bifida in fetus
EthosuximideSteven-Johnson's syndrome
LamotrigineSteven-Johnson's syndrome
CarbamazepineSteven-Johnson's syndrome
Phenobarbital Steven-Johnson's syndrome
Valproic acidHepatic toxicity
CarbamazepineHepatic toxicity
PhenytoinP450 inducer
PhenobarbitalP450 inducer
Topiramate Block sodium channels
CarbamazepineTreats trigeminal neuralgia
PhenytoinTonic-clonic seizure
Valproic acidTonic-clonic seizure
Carbamazepine Tonic-clonic seizure

Brain Tumors

Question Answer
pseudopalisadingglioblastoma multiforme
butterflyglioblastoma (crosses corpus callosum)
crosses corpus callosumglioblastoma (butterfly)
GFAP +glioblastoma, oligodendrioma, pilocytic astrocytoma
from arachnoid cellsmeningioma
dural attachmentmeningioma
spindle cells in whorled patternmeningioma
psammoma bodiesmeningioma
surface of brainmeningioma
asymptomatic until presents with focal near signs or seizuresmeningioma
von hippel lindau associationhemangioblastoma
can cause polycythemiahemangioblastoma
produces EPOhemangioblastoma
thin walled capillaries closely arrangedhemangioblastoma
cerebellopontine angleschwannoma
NF2bilateral schwannoma
fried egg cellsoligodendroglioma
chicken wire capillary patternoligodendroglioma
prolactinomapituatary adenoma
bitemporal hemianopiapituitary adenoma
posterior fossapilocytic astrocytoma
rosenthal fiberseosinophilic corkscrew fibers in pilocytic astrocytoma
homer-write rosettessolid small blue cells in medulloblastoma
drop metastases to spinal cordmedulloblastoma
compress 4th ventricle and cause hydrocephalusependymoma and medulloblastoma
perivascular pseudorosettesrod shaped basal ciliary bodies near nucleus in ependymoma
only childhood tumor supratentoriumcraniopharyngioma
remnant of rathke pouchcraniopharyngioma
tooth-enamel likecraniopharygioma
Precocious puberty+ParinaudPineal germinoma in the superior colliculi
Paralysis of upward gazeParinaud syndrome. Pineal germinoma in the superior colliculi