Neuro Shelf

ptheodore's version from 2015-08-08 02:13

Major Subdivisions of the Brain

Question Answer
Cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, lateral ventricles & Olfactory bulbsTelencephalon
Epithalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus, pineal gland, 3rd ventricle, optic nerve (retina) and chiasmDiencephalon
Midbrain and cerebral aqueductMesencephalon
Pons, cerebellum, upper part of 4th
Medulla, lower part of 4th ventricleMyelencephalon
Telencephalon and DiencephalonProsencephalon
Metencephalon and MyelencephalonRhombencephalon

CNS/PNS Origins

Question Answer
CNS neurons; ependymal cells (inner lining of ventricles, make CSF); oligodendroglia; astrocytes are derived fromNeuroectoderm
PNS neurons and Schwann cells are derived fromNeural crest
Microglia (like Macrophages, originate from ____).Mesoderm


Location madeType
Locus ceruleus (pons)Norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter released by Ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain)Dopamine
Raphe nucleus (pons, medulla, midbrain)Serotonin (5-HT)
Basal nucleus of MeynertACh
Nucleus accumbensGABA


Question Answer
Hunger. Destruction ->anorexia, failure to thrive (infants). Inhibited by leptin.Lateral area
Satiety. Destruction (e.g., craniopharyngioma) Ž hyperphagia. Stimulated by leptin.Ventromedial area
Cooling, parasympathetic.Anterior hypothalamus
Heating, sympathetic.Posterior hypothalamus
Circadian rhythm.Suprachiasmatic nucleus
Lesion of hypothalamus structure that gives Wernike'sMamillary Body
Releasing hormones in the anterior pituitaryArcuate nucleus
Hypothalamic nuclei involved in Savage behavior and obesity from STIMULATION. Affects the GI tractDorsal medial nucleus
Savage behavior and obesity from DESTRUCTIONVentromedial nucleus of Hypothalamus
Regulates release of gonadotropic hormones (LH and FSH)Preoptic nucleus


Question Answer
Beta Waves (Low amplitue & High frequency)Awake & REM Sleep
Theta wavesStage 1 sleep & mediation (N1)
Sleep Splindles & K ComplexesState 2 sleep (N2)
Delta waves (low freq, high amplitude)State 3/4 (N3)


Question Answer
Thalamic Nuclei involved in sensory from body and limbsVentral posterolateral (VPL)
Thalamic Nuclei that receives Spinothalamic and dorsal columns/medial lemniscus tractsVentral posterolateral (VPL)
Thalamic structure that receives sensory from faceVentral posteromedial (VPM)
Thalamic structure that Receives trigeminal and gustatory pathways.Ventral posteromedial (VPM)
Thalamic structure that receives input from Basal ganglia and cerebellum. Motor info.Ventral lateral nucleus
Thalamic strurcture involved with Pain and temperature; pressure, touch, vibration, and proprioceptionVentral posterolateral (VPL)
Thalamic nuclei that gets info from Basal ganglia & cerebellum, involved with motorVentral lateral nucleus
Thalamic Nuclei that receives Visual from optic tract (CN2)Lateral Geniculate (remember L for Light)
Auditory from inferior colliculusMedial Geniculate nucleus (M for Music)
Lesion to what thalamic nuclei leads to a comaIntralaminar nuclei
Lesion of Medial geniculateCan’t localize sound
Lesion of Lateral geniculateAffects vision
Thalamic nuclei that receives Superior olive and inferior colliculus of tectumMedial Geniculate nucleus
Involved in destrution (sensory dysphagia), visual attention problems and neglectPulvinar
Thalamic nucleus Involved in arousalMidline/Intralaminar nucleus
Part of Thalamus, Involved in memory. Damaged in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromeMedial Portion
Thalamic structure that receives Mamillary Nucleus (via mammillothamalic tract). Output is the cingulate gyrus (part of Papez circuit)Anterior nucleus