Neuro Midterm II

annire's version from 2015-12-16 08:53

Section 1

Question Answer
acetylcholine is made of____ using acetyl coA and choline using choline acetyl transferase
what are vesicular acetylcholine transporterspackage acetylcholine into vesicle
acetylcholinesterasedegrades acetylcholine
What are the components of nicotinic ach-rthese ionotropic receptors are made of 5 subunits with 4 transmembrane units
what is needed to activate ach-r2 alpha subunits to bind acetylcholine
what are the components of muscarinic ach-rthis metabotropic receptor is made of 7 transmembrane regions
function of acetylcholineheart, NMJ, CNS

Section 2

Question Answer
glutamate is made from____ usingglutamine using glutaminase
vesicular glutamatepackages glutamate into vesicles
what do glial cells do for glutamatehelps remove glutamate from synpatic cleft
glutamine is made from ____ using gluatmate using glutamine synthetase
EAAT (transporter)reuptake of glutamate from synaptic cleft
glutamate receptrosNMDA, AMPA and Kainate
NMDA -R"coincidence detectors", Mg2+ blocks the receptor
functionmajor excitatory NT in CNS

Section 3

Question Answer
GABA is made from ____ usingglutamate using GAD
GABA functionmajor inhibitory NT in CNS, and regulation of muscle tone
GABA receptors(ionotropic) GABA-A, GABA-C (metabotropic) GABA-B

Section 3b

Question Answer
what are some catecholamine NTdopamine, norepinephrine/noradrenaline, epinephrine/adrenaline
dopamine is made from ____ usingtyrosine (TH) to create dopa (dopa decarboxylase) to make dopamine
norepinephrine is made from ___ usingdopamine using DBH
epinephrine is made from ___usingnorepinephrine using PNMT
removal of these NT uses transporters and for degradation...MAO in the cytosol
function of catecholamine NTmood, attention, movement and visceral function
receptors for dopamine(metabotropic) D1 to D4
receptors for nor/epinephrine(metabotropic) A and beta (heart arrhythmias and hypertension)

Section 4

Question Answer
serotonin is made from ____ usingtryptophan using tryptophan hydroxylase makes 5-HTP, and then 5-HTP is made into 5HT using 5-HTP decarboxylase
removed using transporters (SSRIs) and also MAO in terminal
function of serotoninmood, emotion and sleep
receptors(ionotropic) 5HT-3, (metabotropic) 5HT-1 to 7

Section 5

Question Answer
nonconventional NT: endocannabinoids"retrograde signaling mc" diffuse spontaneously across membranes
synthesismade natural in the body on post-synaptic side, when there is a rise in Ca2+, which activate an enzyme and make them out of lipics (can pass through membrane)
what do they do?bind to CB1 receptor on PRE-synaptic side, and reduces activity of presynaptic Ca2+ channel
functionextinction of memory, appetite, anxiety, stress behavior

Section 5b

Question Answer
what does anandimide dosignals back to presynaptic neuron
how does anandimide workit binds to CH1 receptor, activates a G-protein, closes presynaptic Ca2+ channels so there's no vesicle transport => reduces presynaptic relesase
anadimide is found atglutamate (reduces excitation) and GABA (reduces inhibition)

Section 6

Question Answer
PRESYNAPTIC cocaine/amphetamines physiological effectselevates mood, increases alertness, highly addictive (at high doses kills dopaminergic neurons)
psychological effectsrepeated use => schizophrenia
mechanism of cocaineenhances dopamine at synaptic cleft by blocking prey-synaptic dopamine transporters
mechanism of amphetamineblocks dopamine transporter and causes it to run backwards
functionpleasure centers affected

Section 7

Question Answer
PRESYNPATIC ecstasy physiological effectsfeeling of fellowship increased, hypothermia and dehydration (can be fatal)
mechanism of actioncauses serotonin presynaptic transporter to run backwards.
effects of actionless serotonin at the cleft because not replenished, with repeated use depletion takes longer to recover
ecstasy is more likely to be taken up by serotonin transporter => when taken up, transporter runs backwards

Section 8

Question Answer
PRESYNAPTIC marijuana physiological effectsdilation of corneal blood vessles, increases appetite, suppresses immune syste
psychological effectsmarked distortion of time and space, relaxation, relief from anxiety. (at higher doses, panic attacks)
mechanism binds to CB-1 receptor (metabotropic) on presynaptic terminal
as a result of mechanismretrograde signaling molecule, reduces neurotransmitter release => maybe inhibitory or excitatory
CB1 receptors may be responsible foractive forgetting. mice without them remember tasks better

Section 9

Question Answer
POSTSYNAPTIC LSD/psychedlicsvery potent
physiological effectscauses hallucinations and perceptual distortion, can cause synesthesia
mechanism of actionpartial agonists for 5HT receptors, bind and block access to normal serotonin
where do these drugs targetpre-frontal cortex. it's not clear how this causes altered perception
these drugs also activate ____ productionnorepinephrine production in locus coeruleus (enhances alertness)
also increase _____ release from thalamus to cortexglutamate (causes hallucinations?)
could be used for psychotherapy to help upblock suppressed emotions

Section 10

Question Answer
POSTSYNAPTIC alcoholit can diffuse through membranes so it goes everywhere
physiological effectsat low doses, increases mood and sociability, at high doses, loss of motor control and distortion of time and space
psychological effectscan be highly addictive due to activation of dopaminergic reward system
mechanismwidespread affects across the brain
GABA -A - Renhanced => causes inhibition
NMDA- R reduces function => reduces learning and memory => amnesia
V gated Ca2+ channelsinhibited => reduces synaptic transmission
adenylate cyclaseinhibited => reduces cAMP

Section 11

Question Answer
3 main parts of the neural tubeprosencephalon, mesencephalon and rombencephalon
prosencephalonmost rostral, creates the telencephalon (olfactory and cerebral cortex) and the diencephalon (hypo/thalamus)
mesencephalonmesencephalon and tectum (superior and inferior colliculus)
rhombencephalonmost caudal, metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) and mylencephalon (medulla)

Section 12

Question Answer
3 types of inhibitory/BMP antagonistsfollistatin, noggin, chordin
3 types of neural stem cellsembryonic, adult, pluripotent
where do neural stem cells growsubventricular zone, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb
forward geneticsmutate DNA => phenotype => gene that was mutated; genetic basis of a phenotype
backward geneticswhat phenotypes arise from particular genetics sequences?
domains of robo proteinimmunoglobin, fibronectin, transmembrane domain, conserved cytoplasmic domain

Section 13

Question Answer
growing Ach receptors secreteagrin
agrin will bindto MuSK on the muscle
activated MuSKinteracts with Rapsyn
Rapsynacts to cluster acetylcholine

Section 14

Question Answer
Synaptic rearrangementelimination/addition of synapses, neuronal activity, synaptic strenght
modulating synaptic strengthnumber of vesicles, number of receptors, different receptors, sizes of synapses