Neuro Final

annire's version from 2015-12-13 06:02

Section 1

Question Answer
2 main types of memoryqualitative and temporal
2 types of qualitative memorydeclarative (explicit, can be consciously recalled) and non declarative (implicit, memory retrieved is not conscious)
2 types of declarative semantic (facts) and episodic (events)
properties of declarativeeasy to make, easy to forget; does not handle aging well
3 types of nondeclarative procedural (skills and habits), associative (linking of events), non-associative (habituation and sensitization)
properties of nondeclarativehandles aging well (implicit memories are more stable than explicit memories)
temporalimmediate -> working memory -> long term memory

Section 2

Question Answer
location of declarative memoriesmedial temporal lobe and diencephalon
what is the MTL important forconsolidation, strengthening and stabilization of memories
parts of diencephalon implicated in memoriesthalamus, hypothalamus and mammilary bodies
(non-declarative) procedural memoriesstriatum (part of the basal ganglia)
(non-declarative) associative memoriesamygdala and cerebellum
(non-declarative) non-associativereflex pathways
working memoryprefrontal cortex, parietal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus

Section 3

Question Answer
cervical enlargement controlsarm
lumbar enlargement controlsleg
if sensory inputs to left segment will output to left
ventral horn of spinal cordmotor neurons OUT to muscle
dorsal hornsensory neurons IN to dorsal horns
what are descending motor spinal tractsaxons that descend from the rain to spinal cord and synapse on motor neurons in the spinal cord

Section 4

Question Answer
upper motor neuronsbrain to spinal cord
upper motor neuron tractsventromedial (posture and balance), lateral pathways (voluntary movement)
2 lateral pathways corticospinal tract, rubrospinal tract
lower motor neurons are innervated by upper motor neurons, lower motor neurons start in the ventral part of the spinal cord
describe the lateral pathway (voluntary movement)motor cortex --> cerebral peduncle (midbrain) --> medullary pyramid (medulla) --> pyramidal decussation (axons cross over) to lateral area of spinal cord
right motor cortex controls the left side of the body
damage to what tract can cause paralysis of most musclescorticospinal

Section 5

Question Answer
cranial nervescontrol movement of muscles in the head
eye controlled by oculomotor nerve, abducens, trochlear
area 4 containsthe primary motor cortex (M1)
area 6 containssupplementary motor cortex (SMA), and premotor area/cortex (PMA)
what is a somatopic mapshows the organization in brain and how it maps in an organized way to the body

Section 6

Question Answer
readyposterior parietal and prefrontal cortex), input visual system
setsupplementary motor areas)
goarea 4/M1
cerebellum loopcerebellum -> ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus -> motor cortex ->
function of cerebellumsequence of muscle contractions
basal ganglia loopbasal ganglia -> ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus -> motor cortex ->
function of basal gangliaselection and initiation of willed movements
OVERALL, the motor cortex ->descending spinal tracts -> spinal cord -> muscle

Section 7

Question Answer
what is sensory infothe neural information originating from stimulation of receptor cells in specific parts of the body
receptor potentialelectrical signal that is transformed from physical stimulus??
action potential frequencyreflects stimulus intensity and duration
why is olfaction importantlets us recognize volatile chemicals, availability of food, and pheromones
olfactory neurons locatedolfactory epithelium
2nd order neurons, akamitral or tufted
glomeruluswhere (1st) ORN and 2nd meet
olfactory bulb leads toolfactory cortex in the temporal lobe

Section 7b

Question Answer
if the stimulus pass this threshold, an action potential will be fired and passed onto the 2nd order neuronreceptor potential
why does Cl- go out of the neuron when channel is activated[Cl-] in ORN is very high
mammals have ___ olfactory receptor/s per neuron1
c.elegans have ___ olfactory receptor/s per neuronmany

Section 8

Question Answer
what are the 3 models for organization of ORNs?spatially organized, and same to same gl; mixed, and same to same gl; mixed and mixed
what is teh correct model for ORN organizationORNs that express the same receptor project to ONE glomerulus in the olfactory bulb
str-1p::odr-10::GFP what does this mean?the promotor is str-1p, and where we see GFP is where odr-10 receptor is located (AWA neuron)
AWAresponds to ATTRACTIVE odor (diacetyl)
AWBresponds to REPULSIVE odor (2-nonenone)
ADL + AWC...
odr-10encodes olfactory receptor - AWA
what are the 2 modelsolfactory information is encoded specific to the NEURON or to the RECEPTOR
what happenedwhen odr-10 receptor was moved to a different neuron, the worm started to avoid diacety, which means it didn't matter than the attractive receptor was present on AWB, it still avoided
resultolfactory info is encoded specific to the NEURON

Section 9

Question Answer
broadly tunedORNs have preference for different odors
population codingit takes a population of neurons to respond (odor discrimination involves multiple neurons)
odorant sensory maporderly arrangement of neurons that correlates with features in environment

Section 10

Question Answer
what is homeostasisthe internal environment of the body within a narrow physiological range
humoral responsehormones in the bloodstream
visceromotor responseautonomic nervous system
somatic motor responsevoluntary movement
main brain region involved for homeostasishypothalamus
anabolismenergy storage
catabolismenergy usage
lipostatic hypothesisthere is a mechanism for maintaining energy homeostasis

Section 11

Question Answer
parabiosisshared blood stream
leptinlong term regulation of energy balance, released by fat cells/adipocytes. more --> reduced food intake
orexigenichunger signals
ghrelin--> you are hungry!! **meal initiation, short term regulation of energy balance, released by gastrointestinal cells
hypothalamusregulates hormones
pituitary glandcontrols release of hormones.
periventricular nucleuscontrols release of hormones from pituitary
arcuate nucleusneurons that detect changes in leptin

Section 12

hypothesis: psychological mindset can affect (chemical signals for) feelings of fullness
Question Answer
main resultwhen you thought you consumed a lot of food, your body responded as if it had
predicted modellabels --> occipital cortex --> prefrontal cortex + intestine/ghrelin --> hypothalamus --> feeding behavior