Neuro Dysfunction I - B

olanjones's version from 2016-03-23 06:17

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the function of a 1st order neuron?detects sensation transmits to spinal cord
What is the function of a 2nd order neuron?decussates and transmits to thalamus
What is the function of a 3rd order neuron?transmits to the cerebral cortex
What are dermatomes?cutaneous distribution of spinal nerves (overlap occurs at body surface and spinal distribution)
Describe A delta pain fibersmyelinated, thick – assoc with fast pain, mechanical & thermal
Describe C pain fiberssmallest peripheral nerve fibers, transmit slow-wave pain, chemical, persistent mechanical, & thermal
What is neurogenic inflammation?nociceptive stimulation that activates C fibers producing vasodilation/increased release of chemical mediators causing increased immune activity/inflammatory response

Section 2

Question Answer
Two pathways that carry info from spine to thalamus?discriminative and anterolateral
What types of neurons does discriminative pathway use?dorsal root ganglion neurons, dorsal column nuclei, thalamic neurons
Distinctive feature of discriminative pathwayrelays precise info regarding spatial orientation (integrates input from multiple receptors)
What are the two subdivisions of the anterolateral pathway?neospinothalamic tract & paleospinothalamic tract
Distinctive feature of anterolateral pathway?has branches that travel to the reticular activating system of the brain stem
What info does the neospinothalamic tract provide?relatively rapid transmission of sharp, bright, stabbing pain
What info does the paleospinalthalamic tract provide?gives touch its affective/emotional aspects, dull, diffuse, aching pain, transmits to RAS

Section 3

Question Answer
What part of the somatosensory cortex identifies sensations?Primary somatosensory cortex (direct projections from the thalamus)
What is the role of the somatosensory association area?transform raw info into meaningful learned perception (soft chair vs hard bike seat)
What is the pain specificity theory?special pain receptors (nociceptors) detect pain
What is the pain pattern theory?sensory receptors create pain signals when stimuli are too strong
What is the pain gate control theory?pain is carried by distinct fibers in the spinal cord, gating mechanism in the segmental spinal cord would be able to block pain impulses to the brain
What is the pain neuromatrix theory?the brain identifies the pain
What are 4 factors of pain assessment?nature, severity, location, radiation
Nonpharmacological pain interventionscognitive behavior therapy, physical agents, electroanalgesia, acupuncture
Pharmacologic pain interventionsnonnarcotic and narcotic analgesics, depressants, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants

Section 4 Types of Pain

Question Answer
Cutaneousfrom skin/subcutaneous tissue, sharp/burning, may be abrupt or slow onset
Deep somaticdeep body structures (muscles, tendons, blood vessels, periosteum) more diffuse than cutaneous pain, may radiate
Visceralorgans pain (one of most common pains produced by disease), diffuse, poorly localized, often accompanied by autonomic reflexes
Referredperceived at a site different from its point of origin but innervated by the same spinal segment
Acuteshort duration, remits when underlying pathology is resolved, generally prompts the seeking of professional help
How is acute pain elicited?surgery or trauma to tissue and activation of nociceptive stimuli at site of damage
Chroniccontinuous or intermittent for 6 months or more, sustained by factors that are remote from originating cause (think inflammation increased sensitivity of C fibers)
Neuropathicnerve pain (can be sensory deficit as in paraesthia, or pain as in neuralgia)
Causes of neuropathic painpressure on nerve, physical/chemical injury/ infection to neuron, ischemia, inflammation
Complex regional pain syndromemultisymptom, multisystem syndrome caused by nerve injury
Phantom limbnerve damage associated with amputation

Section 5 Altered pain and Headaches

Question Answer
Suffix of esthesiasensitivity (think hyperesthesia, increased sensitivity)
Suffix of algesiapain sensation (think analgesia, no pain)
Suffix of thermiatemperature sensation (think hypothermia, decreased temo
Allodyniapain that follows non-noxious stimuli
Migrainewith or without aura, pulsatile, throbbing, unilateral, lasts 1-2 days, aggravated by activity (more common in women)
Clusteruncommon, severe, unrelenting, unilateral-orbital, peaks at 10-15 mins, lasts 15-180 mins (more common in men
Tensiondull, aching, diffuse, nondescript, occurs in hatband distribution, can be infrequent, episodic, or chronic
Chronic dailyoccur 15 days or more a month (includes d/t med overuse) hypoth: transformed migraine, evolved tension HA
Temporomandibular joint painimbalance in joint movement of jaw, causes facial pain, earache, neck ache