Neuro Dysfunction I - A

olanjones's version from 2016-03-21 17:17

Section 1

Question Answer
What are neurons?the functional nerve cells, they exhibit membrane excitability/conductivity, secrete neurotransmitters/hormones
What is the function of neuroglia?to support, protect, and insulate neurons
What neuroglia are found in the PNS?Schwann cells (myelin), satellite cells (surround neuron cell body)
What neuroglia are found in CNS?Oligodendrocytes (myelin), astrocytes (regulate metabolites/ions), microglia (phagocytes), ependymal cells (line the neural tube cavity)
Nerve impulses are transmitted by what 2 types of phenomena?Electrical (propagates signal), Chemical (transmits signal)
What is the key process that integrates the nervous system?synaptic transmission (determines continuation of signal)
What is the purpose of neuromodulators?create long-term changes to enhance/depress receptor action
What is the role of neurotrophic factors?to proliferate, differentiate, maintain survival of neuronal/non-neuronal cells

Section 2 Changing Membrane Potentials

Question Answer
Stage oneat rest, cell membrane is polarized
Stage twostimulus opens Na+ gates in dendrites and soma (begins to depolarize)
Stage threethreshold is met, more Na+ gates open at axon hillock (depolarization)
Stage fourK+ gates opens allowing K+ to diffuse out of axon (repolarization)
Which gates are first and fastest to open?Na+ gates
Which gates open second and slower?K+ gates

Section 3

Question Answer
Dendrites have what type of receptors to pick up signals?chemical (neurotransmitter)
How does the signal move from dendrite to cell body?NT binds at receptor, generates electrical signal that travels to cell body
What are 3 types of neurotransmitters?amino acids, peptides, monoamines
Example of amino acid NTGABA, glutamate, norepinephrine
Example of peptide NTendorphins
Example of monoamine NTepinephrine, serotonin

Section 4

Question Answer
Describe preganglionic neuronsaxons are myelinated, leave spinal column by ventral route
What type of NT action occurs at preganglionic junctions?ACh binds to cholinergic nicotinic receptors
What type of NT action occurs at SNS postganglionic junctions?epinephrine/norepinephrine bind to adrenergic receptors
What type of NT action occurs at PSNS postganglionic junctions?Ach binds to cholinergic muscarinic receptors
What are the adrenergic receptors?alpha 1 (constrict BV), alpha 2 (inhibit NT release), beta 1 (increase HR/contraction) beta 2 (bronchodilation, inhibit GI, micturition) beta 3 thermogenesis
How are adrenergic NTs removed from the synapse?by reuptake or degrading by enzymes
What are the cholinergic receptors?nicotinic (postganglionic AN neurons, skeletal muscle), muscarinic (slow heart, stimulate GI tract)
How are cholinergic NTs removed from the synapse?acetylcholinesterase