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Neuro- Class 5

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taylormaloney's version from 2017-02-01 23:30

Section 1

Question Answer
Define SensationThe conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the external and internal environment.
Define PerceptionThe conscious interpretation of sensations performed by the cerebral cortex.
Major difference between somatic sensory and autonomic sensorySensory receptors in somatic = soma. In autonomic = in glands/organs/smt they function on.
Simplified- Sensation VS PerceptionSensation is gathering the information by using our senses, and perception is the understanding of what is being sensed.
Nature of sensation and type of reaction = dependent on ultimate destination of impulse in CNSSpinal Cord- reflexes. Lower Brain Stem- Heart/Respiration Changes. And Cerebral Cortex- Conscious awareness of sensation/ precise location and specification of the sensation.
Perception is considered a function primarily of..The Cerebral Cortex.
What does this mean regarding the ability to respond to sensation?The sensation must reach the cerebral cortex to be perceived and acted upon.
What is an example of sensations that do not make it to the Cerebral Cortex?Cardiovascular + Respiration sensations only travel to brain stem, so our breathing and heart rate is not something we are able to perceive consciously.
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Section 2

Question Answer
What are the types of sensory modalities?Touch, pain, vision, audition, etc.
How many senses can be carried by a sensory neuron?Only one modality per each neuron.
Sensory Modalities are classified as A) + B)A) General B) Special Senses.
What are considered the general senses in Somatic NS?Tactile sensation (touch, pressure, vibration, itch, tickle), Thermal senses, Pain senses, and Proprioceptive Senses.
What are considered the general senses in the visceral body organs?Pressure, stretch, chemicals, nausea, hunger and temperature.
What are considered to be the special senses?Smell, taste, vision, hearing and equilibrium.
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Section 3

Question Answer
What are the stages in the processing of sensation?Sensory receptor stimulated, transduction of stimulus, generation of nerve impulse, then integration of sensory input.
What is a sensory receptor?A specialized cell that made up of dendrites from sensory neurons.
Define the selectivity of sensory stimulation.The sensory receptors respond vigorously to one type of stimulus while barely reacting (if at all) to another type of stimuli.
Define Transduction of a stimulusEnergy of one stimulus is converted into a graded potential.
What takes place when the graded potential reaches threshold?One or more nerve impulses are triggered, the impulses propagate toward CNS by first order neuron.
How is the sensory input integrated?Specific region of CNS receives the impulses from each part of body, reach the cerebral cortex where the interpretation of the sensations/perceptions takes place.
What part of the brain operates to interpret and integrate the sensory information?The Primary Somatosensory areas. (1,2,3).
Where is it located?Postcentral gyrus.
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Section 4

Question Answer
What are the three criteria for the classification of sensory receptors?1) Microscopic structure 2) Location of the receptors and origin of stimuli 3) Type of stimulus detected.
How are the sensory classified by microscopic structure?1) Free nerve endings 2) Encapsulated nerve endings 3) Separate cells.
When considering the free nerve ending receptors what would you see under the microscope?Bare dendrites under the microscope.
What receptors would be free nerve endings?Pain, temp, tickle, itch, and some touch.
When considering encapsulated nerve ending receptors, what is different from free ending?The dendrites are enclosed in a connective tissue capsule, different capsules enhance specificity and sensitivity.
What do they detect?Pressure, vibration and some touch.
What are separate cell receptors?Specialized separate cells that synapse to the first-order sensory neurons.
What would these include?Taste buds, photoreceptors in retina, and hair cells in inner ear for hearing.
Generator potentials are generated by what structures?Free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings and olfactory receptors.
What happens to the generator potentials that reach threshold?They trigger nerve impulses in the first order neuron, then go on to the CNS.
Where are receptor potentials generated?Separate cells receptors.
Receptor potentials trigger the release of what.. which then goes on to create a ...... in the first-order neuron.Release of a neurotransmitter which produces a Postsynaptic potential, which may subsequently trigger nerve impulses that reach the CNS.
What are the types of receptors by location/origin of stimuli?Exteroreceptors, interoceptors, and proprioceptors.
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Section 5

Question Answer
What is an exteroceptor, and what type of information would they provide?Located at or near external surface of body, supplies hearing vision smell taste touch pressure vibration temperature and pain.
What is an interoceptor or visceroceptor?Located within the blood vessels, visceral organs, muscles or nervous system. Supplies info that monitors internal environment. Not conciously perceived, some may be felt. such as pain or pressure.
Where are proprioceptors located, what information do they supply?Muscles Joints, Ear. Supplies body position, muscle length and tension, and the movement of the joints.
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Section 6

Question Answer
What are the types of receptors based off type of stimulus received?Mechanical, Electromagnetic, and Chemical.
What type of mechanical stimuli is the mechanoreceptors sensitive to?Deforrmation, stretching, and bending.
What information is provided by the mechanoreceptors?Touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, hearing, equilibrium and stretching of the blood vessels and internal organs.
What do thermoreceptors detect?Changes in temperature.
What do nocioceptors detect?Pain and respond to physical and chemical tissue damage.
What do the photoreceptors detect?Light.
What do the chemoreceptors detect?Chemicals- mouth (taste), and Nose (smell)
What do osmoreceptors detect?Osmotic pressure of bodily fluids.
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Section 7

Question Answer
Define Adaptation of sensory receptors?The generator potential and receptor potential decrease during the sustained stimuli- causing the perception of a sensation to fade or disappear if stimulus persists.
Rapidly Adapting receptors relate to..Pressure, touch and smell.
Slowly adapting receptors monitor..Pain, body position, and chemical composition of blood.
Adaptation may continue to occur as the sensory signals are processed by..The CNS.
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