Neuro - Class 4

taylormaloney's version from 2017-01-25 23:30

Section 1

Question Answer
Where is the sensory receptors in an autonomic reflex arc located?In the distal end of the sensory neuron. Associated w/ interoceptors located in autonomic organ.
What are the integrating centres, located in the CNS- for the ANSHypothalamus. Limbic System/Brain Stem/Spinal Cord/Cerebral Cortex.
What are the two autonomic motor neurons, and where are they located?In CNS- Preganglionic(CNS to Autonomic Ganglion), Postganglionic (From Autonomic Ganglion to Effector).
Where would you find the Autonomic system effectors?In the SMT, Cardiac Muscle, and Glands.

Section 2

Question Answer
Define Autonomic ToneThe balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in the body.
What regulates the autonomic tone?The hypothalamus.
How does the hypothalamus regulate the autonomic tone?By toning up the sympathetic and/or toning down the parasympathetic activities.
How can it act differently on symp/parasymp?The release of different neurotransmitters by the postganglionic neurons, and the effector organs possess different receptors.
Sympathetic Innervation= what neurotransmitter? Parasympathetic = what neurotransmitter?Symp- Norepinephrine. Parasymp- Acetylcholine
What are the two types of receptors that may be found on the effector organs?Adrenergic and Cholinergic.
Which type of innervation is more prominent in the organs?Most have dual innervation.
How does an organ, with only Sympathetic Innervation, function?They are innervated for sympathetic, but not opposed by parasympathetic. Increased symp tone- one effect. While decrease in symp tone produces opposite.
What organs have only sympathetic innervation?Sweat glands, Most blood vessels, adrenal medulla, arrector pili, kidneys, spleen.

Section 3

Question Answer
What gland produces secretions due (mostly) to the parasympathetic stimulation?Lacrimal gland. Contains mostly muscarinic ACh receptors and few alpha receptors.
When would this gland function via sympathetic stimulation?Only to secrete enough moisture for the anterior of the eyeball.
During physical and emotional stress, which type of response is dominant?Sympathetic over Parasympathetic.
What is the functional purpose of high sympathetic tone?Favors functioning in the support of Physical activity and production of ATP. Also reduces body functions that are designed to collect and store energy.
What types of situations may stimulate sympathetic responses?Physical Exertion, fear, embarrassment, rage.
What is EEE?Exercise, Emergency, Embarrassment.
What type of fight or flight responses that you would be likely to see in someone with High Autonomic Tone?Dilation of pupils, HR, force of contraction, and blood pressure increase. Airway dilation.
What type of blood vessels would constrict in fight or flight mode?Kidneys and GI.
What type of blood vessels would dilate during fight or flight?Skeletal muscles, heart muscles, liver, adipose tissue.

Section 4

Question Answer
What is Glycogenolysis?The function of releasing glucose into the blood stream, so glucose is available for glycolysis.
What type of cell performs glycogenesis?Hepatocytes.
What is lipolysis?The breaking down of triglycerides.
What is the function of lipolysis?Making glycerol available for gluconeogenesis(reactions put together to obtain glucose from non carbohydrate substances). Fatty acids are utilized for beta oxidation.
What cells perform lipolysis?Adipose cells.

Section 5

Question Answer
Because GI functioning is unnecessary for fight + flight, what takes place?GI tract motility is slowed down, GI glands secretions decrease.
What takes place if the fight or flight mode goes on for too long?Reduced peristalsis, constipation, paralytic ileus, pseudoobstruction.
Why is sympathetic stimulation long lasting/wiespread?Postganglionic fibres diverge in many directions causing widespread stimulation and NE lingers in the synaptic cleft for longer periods of time.
What secretions help prolong the sympathetic responses?Epinephrine and Norepinephrine (secreted by adrenal medulla). Which affect all organs with alpha/beta receptors.
Why does the removal of NE and Epi take longer?They are destroyed inside the liver where they are destroyed by enzymes- which takes time.

Section 6

Question Answer
What does the parasympathetic system help regulate?The rest and digest activities.
Active when.. Support the ...When rest/recovering. They conserve and restore energy to the body and reduce body functions that support physical activity.
Parasymp impulses to GI Tract are .stronger/weaker .. than the sympathetic impulses?Stronger.
What is SLUDD?Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Digestion, and Defecation.
What are the three decreases.The three functions performed by parasympathetic responses which decrease.. HR, Diameter of airway, and Diameter of Pupil.

Section 7

Question Answer
Check slides for charts/diagrams.

Section 8

Question Answer
What is the major control and integration centre of the ANS?Hypothalamus
What sensory input is sent to the major control of ANSVisceral functions, olfaction, gustation, changes in blood (temp, osmolarity-measure of solutes in fluid-, levels of various substances. Emotions- limbic system.
What two autonomic centres are influenced by the Hypothalamus?Brain stem- cardiovascular, salivation, deglutition, vomiting. Sacral SC- defecation, and urination.
What are the anatomical connections of the Hypothalamus?Both Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions. - Reticular Formation in BS, Symp nuclei in BS and SC, ParaSymp nuclei in BS and SC.

Section 9

Question Answer
The Posterior and Lateral pts of Hypothalamus controls what?The sympathetic division. -> Increase of HR and force of contraction, Increases BP and Temp, Dilates Pupils, Inhibits the GI tract.
What part of the Hypothalamus controls the parasympathetic division?The anterior and medial parts. - > Decreases HR, BP. Constricts pupil, increases secretion and motility of GI tract.

Section 10

Question Answer
What is the pupillary light reflex?An autonomic reflex of the eye. Normally pupil will react to amount of light it is exposed to.
Bright light? Dimmed light? Other eye?Bright- constriction. Dim- dilation. Other eye will generally match the eye being tested.
What is the stomach secretion reflex?An autonomic reflex of the stomach causing an increase in secretions when food reaches the stomach.
How does the stomach secretion reflex happen?Walls of stomach distend which stimulates the vagal receptors. Stimuli reaches preganglionic neurons in nucleus of vagus in medulla. Impulses sent from nucleus go to the postganglionic neuron. Output from terminal ganglion triggers secretion of stomach glands.

Section 11

Question Answer
Define Orthostatic HypotensionAn autonomic imbalance that takes place when someone stands quickly, causing blood to leave the brain.
How does Orthostatic Hypotension work?Standing quickly causes gravity to pull blood downwards, symp reflex that maintains brain's blood supply cannot maintain BP causing person to faint and fall to the ground. Lying on the ground causes more blood to return to your brain, restoring the BP and person feels better.
What is Autonomic DysreflexiaThe exaggerated sympathetic response after recovery of a spinal cord injury.
What causes this?Interuption of the control of ANS neurons by higher centers. (85% of all spinal cord injuries at T6 and above.)
What is the result?Certain sensory impulses can nolonger travel up the spinal cord, which causes mass stimulation of symp nerves inferior to the spinal cord level of the lesion.
Potential sensory impulses that may trigger autonomic dysreflexia?Stretching of full bladder, stimulation of pain receptors, visceral contractions from sexual stimulation, labor/delivery, bowel stimulation.
What is a mass sympathetic nerve stimulation?An overload of neural impulses at a level below the spinal level of a lesion.
What might this cause?Severe vasoconstriction which elevates BP. Vagal parasymp outputs increase which causes HR to lower and BP to lower. Causing decreased symp output to BV superior to spinal injury.
What is an example of autonomic dysreflexia?Pounding headache and anxiety- causing flushed, warm, sweaty skin above the injury level. But below injury level- Pale, cold, dry skin.
How is it treated?Quick identification of aggravating stimulus. Treating the resulting high BP, and preventing seizures/strokes/heart attacks.

Section 12

Question Answer
What is Raynauds Phenomenon?An autonomic reflex that is an autonomic dysreflexia reaction,
What takes place?Exposure to cold or emotional stress causing tips of fingers and toes to become ischemic due to abnormal symp stimulation. Vasoconstriction of arterioles of digits make them blanch or cyanoticDigits may become necrotic.