Neuro Class 3

taylormaloney's version from 2017-01-18 23:10

Section 1

Question Answer
How are ANS neurons classified?By the type of neurotransmitter they secrete.
What are the 2 classifications for ANS neurons?Cholinergic + Adrenergic Neurons.
Which secretes Ach?Cholinergic Neurons
Which secretes epi + NEAdrenergic Neurons
What category does symp/parasymp preganglionic neurons?Cholinergic Neurons.
Symp postganglionic neurons innervate most glands of what type?Sweat glands- responsible for temperature regulation.
Cholinergic Neurons includes what type of post ganglionic neurons?All parasympathetic postganglionic.

Section 2

Question Answer
How many types of cholinergic receptors are there?2- Nicotinic and Muscarinic.
The cholinergic receptors consist of what type of proteins?Integral membrane proteins in postsynaptic neuron- bind with Ach.
Where are Nicotinic receptors found?Plasma membrane of dendrites/cell bodies of both symp + parasymp postganglionic neurons.
Where else are nicotinic receptors found?Chromaffin cells + Motor end plate of NMJ (somatic)
How does nicotine in tobacco act towards these receptors?They mimic the action of Ach. Parasympathomimetic Chemical.

Section 3

Question Answer
Where are muscarinic receptors located?In smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands.
What is muscarine?A poison found in mushrooms, mimics the action of Ach. - Parasympaticomimetic chemical.
Do nicotine/muscarine activate the receptors of the opposite type? No.
If neurotransmitter from postganglionic neuron secretes Ach it is a __________ response.Sympathetic
If neurotransmitter from postganglionic neuron is NE or epi, it will be a _______ response.Para sympathetic.

Section 4

Question Answer
When nicotinic receptors are exposed to Ach, post synaptic cell becomes..Excited. ( Postganglionic neuron, autonomic effector, skeletal muscle fibres.
When Muscarinic receptors are exposed to Ach it may be ...Either excitatory/inhibitory response.
Effect of cholinergic neurons are usually..Brief, due to rapid inactivation of Ach by the acetylcholinesterase.

Section 5

Question Answer
Adrenergic neurons and receptors release what substance?Either NE
Most ____________ post ganglionic neurons are adrenergic.Sympathetic
NE binds to specific adrenergic receptors causing....excitation or inhibition of effector cells.
Adrenergic receptors bind to both..epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Norepinephrine is released by..
Epinephrine is released by...
What are the four types of cells that are cholinergic?
The two that were Adrenergic?
What are the two main types of adrenergic receptors?

Section 6

Question Answer
Activation of Alpha 1/ Beta 1 = ______ of effector tissues?Excitation
Activation of alpha 2 /beta 2 receptors causes _____.Inhibition.
Where are beta 3 receptors found?Only in brown adipose tissue, and their action causes thermogenesis.
Activation of Beta 3 receptors causes ...Thermogenesis ( heat generation ).
Where is BAT found?non shivering thermogenesis.

Section 7

Question Answer
The cells of most receptors contain .... alpha or beta receptors.One or the other.
Some cells of visceral effectors comtain.. BOTH alpha and beta receptors.
NE stimulates which type of receptor more strongly?NE stimulates ALPHA receptors more strongly.
Epinephrine is a stimulator to what kind of receptor?BOTH alpha and beta.
The termination of the activation by NE occurs by what process?Enzymatic Inactivation.
What types of enzymes degrade NE?COMT/MAO.
Which lasts longer in the synaptic cleft, Ach or NE?NE

Section 8

Question Answer
What is a receptor antagonist?a substance that binds and blocks a receptor, preventing a natural neurotransmitter or hormone from exerting it's effects.
What is an example of a receptor antagonist?Atropine- blocks muscarine Ach receptors.
What effect does this substance have?Dilation of pupils, reduces glandular secretion and relaxes SMT in GI tract.
Atropine is a _________ type of drug.Parasympatholytic drug.

Section 9

Question Answer
What is a receptor agonist? MimeticsA substance that binds and activates a receptor- mimicking the effect of a natural neurotransmitter or hormone.
What is an example of a mimetic/agonist?Phenylephrine- agonist at Alpha 1 receptor.
What effect does this substance have?Reduces production of mucus by constricting blood vessels- may relieve nasal congestion.

Section 10

Question Answer
What is the difference between sympathomimetic and parasympatholytic drugs?They have similar effects but the mechanism of action is different- parasympatholytic is blockage of parasympathetic - sympathomimetic is a mimicking of sympathetic.
Examples or sympathomimetics would be..Meth, Ephedrine, Ritalin, MDMA, Cocaine.
What is propranolol(Inderal)?Used to treat HBP as a beta blocker, it binds to all types of beta receptors- preventing activation by NE and Epi
Inderal's actions on Beta 1 receptors?Decreases heart rate and force of contraction, which subsequently lowers blood pressure.
Inderal's actions on Beta 2 receptors?Lowers Blood sugar from decreased glycogen breakdown and gluconogenesis. Produces bronchoconstriction.
Selective beta blockers are preferred because..It reduces the undesired effects, while maintaining the desired effects.
Beta 1-Heart
Beta 2- Lungs.

Section 11