Neuro Class 2.5

taylormaloney's version from 2017-01-11 23:28

Section 1

Question Answer
The parasympathetic division of the preganglionic neuroons are located...In the cranio-sacral locations.
Cranial Portion-Brain stem- nuclei of III, VII, IX, and X Cranial N's
The Sacral Portion-Lateral Horns of S2 to S4.
What is the cranial parasympathetic outflow?The preganglionic axons extended from the brain stem in the four cranial nerves.
What is the sacral parasympathetic outflow?The preganglionic axons in the ventral roots of S2,S3, & S4.
Where do both cranial and sacral parasymp outflows end?They end in the terminal ganglia where they synapse with the postganglionic neuron.
What is the other name for the terminal ganglia?Intramural ganglia.
Why are they named that?Because most parasymp ganglia are located close to or within the wall of the visceral organs.

Section 2

Question Answer
The terminal ganglia are associated with ..The Vagus nerve and four pair of ganglia that innervate structures in the head.
Do these terminal ganglia have names?No, with the exception of four pair located in the head.
What are the names of the four pairs of ganglia in the head?Ciliary Ganglion, Pterygopalatine Ganglion, Submandibular Ganglion, and Otic Ganglion.
Ciliary GangliaLie lateral to each optic nerve. preganglionic axons pass with CN III to the ciliary ganglia.
What does the ciliary ganglia innervate?Postganglionic axons innervate the SMT fibres in the eyeball. (Ciliary mms and iris).
Pterygopalatine GangliaLateral to the spheno-palatine foramen, receive preganglionic axons for the facial N. (CN VII)
What does the pterygopalatine ganglia innervate?Glands of nasal mucosa, palate, pharynx, and lacrimal gl.
Submandibular GangliaLocated near ducts of submandibular glands, receive preganglionic axons from the facial N. (CN VII)
What does the submandibular ganglia innervate?Submandibular and Sublingual Salivary Gl's/
Otic GangliaSituated just inferior to foramen ovale. Receive preganglionic axons from the glossopharyngeal N (CN IX)
What does the otic ganglia innervate?Parotid Gland.

Section 3

Question Answer
How does the majority of the preganglionic parasympathetic outflow leave the brain?By way of the Vagus N. (80%)
Where do the vagal axons extend to?The terminal ganglia of organs found in the thorax and abdomen.
The Vagus N innervation in the neckLarynx, Pharynx, and Esophagus.
The Vagus N innervation in the thoraxHeart, Airways, Lungs.
The Vagus N innervation in the abdomenStomach, Liver/Gall Bladder, Pancreas, Small Intestine, and pt of Large Intestine.

Section 4

Question Answer
What makes up the Sacral Outflow (Parasympathetic)Spinal N's of S2-S4, branch off of sacral N's and form the pelvic splanchnic N's
What is the pelvic splanchnic n's and what do they supply?Preganglionic axons that synapse with terminal ganglia. They innervate the SMT and glands of the Colon, Ureters, Bladder, and Reproductive Organs.

Section 5

Question Answer
What makes up the ANS of the GI Tract?The Enteric Division
What is the ENS responsible for?It's own nervous system functioning- intrinsic input, processing and output.
Is the ENS dependent on the CNS or PNS?It functions independently and does not require input from another pt of the NS. However, it can also receive controlling input from CNS.
Where is the ENS located?Within the walls of the GI tract, pancreas and gallbladder.
How many neurons make up the ENS?100 million neurons. (Same as SC).
How does the ENS function?Sensory neurons monitor tension of the wall and composition of it's contents. Interneurons within the enteric ganglia process signals and generate output for motor neurons within the wall. Motor Neurons innervate the SMT and glands of the GI tract to control motility and secretions.
What are the two ENS plexuses?Myenteric- Esophagus to anus. & Submucosal- From stomach to the anus.