Neuro Block 2

ptheodore's version from 2015-07-06 11:33


Question Answer
Cranial Nerves in the reticular formationCN 3, 9, 10
Important component in pain suppressionPeriaqueductal gray
Oculomotor nerve (CN III) is found in theRostral Midbrain
Trochlear nerve (CN IV) is found in theCaudal Midbrain
Superior Colliculi is found in theRostral Midbrain
Inferior Colliculi is found in theCaudal Midbrain
Contralateral lower face paralysis. Contralateral tongue weakness (tongue will deviate away from a ___ lesion). Contralateral palate (uvula will deviate towards a that lesion).Corticobulbar tract CBT) damage/lesion


Question Answer
What is created from CN VII wrapping around CN VI before exiting ponsFacial colliculi
Cortical axons going to the cerebellum first synapse ipsilaterally onPontine Nuclei
Transverse pontine fibers enter cerebellum viaMiddle Cerebellar Peduncle


Question Answer
What send fibers to cerebellum via inferior peduncle (coordination of voluntary movement). (Left ___ sends to right cerebellum and vice versa)Olivary Nuclei, Olive
What's in the medulla that connects the two cerebellar hemispheresOlivary nuclei

Blood Supply

Question Answer
What empties into superior sagittal sinusSuperior Cerebral
What empties into cavernous sinusSuperficial Middle Cerebral
What drains the InsulaDeep Middle Cerebral
Great Cerebral Vein (of Galen) empties intoStraight Sinus
Artery that supplies the Pineal glandSuperior cerebellar artery
Ethmoid and frontal sinuses, as well as dorsum of the nose are supplied byOphthalmic Artery
Which artery supplies the choroid plexus of lateral ventriclesAnterior choroidal artery
Which artery supplies the crus cerebriAnterior choroidal artery
Which artery supplies the lateral geniculate nucleusAnterior choroidal artery
Which artery supplies the optic tractAnterior choroidal artery
Which artery supplies the internal capsuleAnterior choroidal artery
The Labyrinthine arteries mostly come from which branchAICA
Occlusion of the Posterior Spinal Artery leads toLoss of proprioception, pressure, vibration
Occlusion of the Anterior Spinal Artery leads toBilateral loss of pain and temperature
What is the Leading cause of cognitive impairment Silent Strokes
When do most thrombosis occurDuring Sleep (60%), when blood pressure is low.
What's an example of a watershed area where infarcts commonly occur in the brainMiddle & Anterior Cerebral Artery
Most common locations for Hypertensive hemorrhageDeep gray matter (putamen, thalamus, cerebellum, pons)
What results in small lesions (Charcot-Bouchard or miliary aneurysms)Chronic hypertension (Hypertensive hemorrhage)
When arteries go into veins without intervening capillaries, what can be formedNIDUS
Failure of ATP dependent ion transport (Na+/Ca2+), reversible, More common in gray matterCytotoxic Edema
Increased extracellular fluid volume due to increased permeability of brain capillary, more common in white matter, irreversibleVasogenic Edema
Most common cause of intracranial bleedingAmyloid Angiopathy
What's the purpose of Angioplasty/ Stenting?Reduces formation of intra-arterial clots
Intracerebral bleeding that causes sudden neurological symptoms and is almost always associated with a headacheHemorrhage
Which artery occlusion can lead to Broca’s Aphasia & Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromeLeft Middle Cerebral artery occlusion
supplies head of caudate, anterior part of putamen and globus pallidus, anterior limb of internal capsule.Recurrent artery of Heubner (Branch of ACA)
Transient blindness in one eyeCentral Retinal Artery (Branch of Opthalmic)


Question Answer
Spinocerebellum A.K.APaleocerebellum
Function of SpinocerebellumPosture/balance/motor execution
Which tract goes through the SpinocerebellumSpinocerebellar tracts
What is the output of the Spinocerebellum Globose/Emboliform nuclei
Spinocerebellum corresponds with which lobeAnterior lobe
Pontocerebellum A.K.ANeocerebellum
Function of PontocerebellumTiming, motor planning, limb coordination
Which tract goes through the PontocerebellumCorticopontocerebellar tracts
What is the output of the PontocerebellumDentate Nuclei
Pontocerebellum corresponds with which lobePosterior lobe
Damage to Pontocerebellum (cerebellar hemisphere) Ipsilateral deficits of arms and legs
Dysdiadochokinesia; hand slap on knee rapidly alternating between palm and back of handDamage to Pontocerebellum (cerebellar hemisphere)
Vestibulocerebellum A.K.AArchicerebellum
Function of Vestibulocerebellum Balance and eye movements
What is the output of the VestibulocerebellumFastigial nuclei
Vestibulocerebellum corresponds with which lobeFlocculonodular lobe
Damage to the VestibulocerebellumVertigo, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus
Damage to midline (i.e. vermis/spinocerebellum)Truncal ataxia
Molecular cell layer containsStellate and basket cells and purkinje dendrites
Purkinje cell layer containsPurkinje cells most branched layer
Granule cell layer containsGranule and golgi cells
What goes through the Superior cerebellar peduncleAnterior Spinocerebellar
What goes through the Middle cerebellar peduncleCorticopontocerebellar tract
What goes through the Inferior cerebellar peduncleOlivocerebellar tracts
Degeneration of anterior portion of vermis. Symptoms: general incoordination, gait difficulties, leg ataxia, results from malnutrition associated with alcoholismAnterior vermis syndrome (Rostral vermis syndrome)
Often results from medulloblastomasPosterior vermis syndrome (Caudal vermis syndrome)
Damage to flocconodular lobe results in vestibular problems. Symptoms: difficulty maintaining posture of trunk/neck, and staggering gait Posterior vermis syndrome (Caudal vermis syndrome)
Slurring, explosive, hesitant, garbled, even possible change in accent. Affects articulation and prosody of speech. Articulation = slurring. Prosody = all syllables are equally emphasized.Cerebellar dysarthria (Lesion to hemispheric rather than vermis region)
Connects cerebellum to midbrain, pons.Superior Peduncle
Connects cerebellum to pons.Middle Peduncle
Connects cerebellum to medulla.Inferior Peduncle
Containing dorsal spinocerebellar, cuneocerebellar, and olivocerebellar tracts. Afferent OnlyRestiform body (Division of Inferior cerebellar peduncle)
Contain vestibulo cerebellar and cerebello vestibular tracts. Afferent & EfferentJuxtarestiform body (Division of Inferior cerebellar peduncle)


Question Answer
Brodmann's (18,19)Major output to visual association areas
Thalamic Nuclei involved in sensory form body and limbsVentral posterolateral
Thalamic Nuclei that receives ascending medial and spinal leminisci tracts.Ventral posterolateral
Sensory from faceVentral posteromedial
Receives trigeminal and gustatory pathways.Ventral posteromedial
Motor info form basal ganglia. Connected to basal ganglia (corpus striatum), and motor areas of cortex. Projects to prefrontal cortex and premotor area.Ventral anterior nucleus
Motor info form basal ganglia. Connected to basal ganglia (corpus striatum), and motor areas of cortex. Projects to prefrontal cortex and premotor area. Projects to motor (4) and premotor (6) regions. Also receives major input from cerebellum.Ventral lateral nucleus
Motor info from basal ganglia only Ventral anterior nucleus
Motor info from Basal ganglia & cerebellum Ventral lateral nucleus
Visual from optic tractLateral Geniculate (remember L for Light)
Auditory from inferior colliculusMedial Geniculate (M for Music)
Contains Mammillary nucleus (via mammillothalamic tract)Anterior Portion
Thalamic nuclei involved in emotional tone and recent memoryAnterior Portion
Involved in memory. Damaged in ~Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromeMedial Portion
Contains mediodorsal (or dorsomedial) nucleus Medial Portion
Concerned with integration of sensory information, and how it relates to emotional states.Medial Portion
Contains lateral dorsal (LD) and lateral posterior (LP) nuclei, and the pulvinar.Dorsal/Posterior Portion (End)
Involved in destrution (sensory dysphagia), visual attention problems and neglectPulvinar
Helps integrate somesthetic, visual and auditory inputPulvinar
A small group of neurons within the internal medullary lamina. Connected to reticular formation, other thalamic nuclei, striatum, etc. = Believed to influence levels of consciousnessIntralaminar nucleus
Involved in arousalMidline/Intralaminar nucleus
Lesion to what thalamic nuclei leads to a comaIntralaminar nuclei
A separate group of intra-laminar nuclei involved in motor functions.Centromedian nucleus
Thin layer of cells separating surface of thalamus from posterior limb of internal capsule. Cortex may regulate thalamic activity through here (sleep)Reticular nucleus
Thalamus is separated from head of caudate by a fiber tract called theStria terminalis
The two thalami are connected by a band of gray matter called theinterthalamic adhesion.
The Epithalamus is made up ofThe pineal body and habenula.
What separates the thalamus into anterior, medial, and lateral regions.The internal medullary lamina
A separate group of intra-laminar nuclei involved in motor functionsCentromedian nucleus
Occurs after recovery from a thalamic infarct. Spontaneous, often intense pain occurs on the contralateral side of WHOLE body. May also include mood swings as a symptom.Thalamic syndrome
After thalamic lesions, contralateral hand is maintained in abnormal positions. Wrist is pronated and flexed. Finger movements are slowThalamic hand
Lesion of Medial geniculateCan’t localize sound
Lesion of Lateral geniculateAffects vision
Lesion of Ventral lateral nucleusataxia; uncoordination; dysmetria


Question Answer
Controls feeding behaviors, temp controlHypothalamus
Dissipation of heat (cools you off) . Lesion = hyperthermiaAnterior nucleus
Throughout hypothalamus. Stimulation induces eating. Destruction causes starvationLateral nucleus
Hunger center. Stimulation= obesity, savage behaviorDorsomedial
Satiety center. Destruction= obesity, savage behaviorVentral medial
Conservation of heat (warms you up). Lesion= PoikilothermiaPosterior nucleus
Wernicke/Korsakoff hemorrhagic lesions hereMamillary bodies
Disturbances of sleep/wakefulness can occur with _____deficits, due to its connections to reticular formation and involvement with circadian rhythmshypothalamic
Mammillary bodies to anterior nucleus of thalamus. Connects emotional stateMammillothalamic tract
Mammillary bodies to reticular formation and tegmentumMammillotegmental tract
Hippocampal formation to mammillary bodiesFornix
Reward pathwayMedial forebrain bundle
Amygdala to hypothalamusStria terminalis
Damage to this above T1= Horner’s syndrome (ipsilateral)Hypothalamospinal
Secreting neurons go to anterior pituitary (FLAT PEG)Parvocellular
Anterior lobe A.K.AAdenohypophysis
Posterior lobe A.K.ANeurohypophysis
Oxytocin, Vasopressin(ADH), CRH (via paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei!)Magnocellular Secreting Neurons

Recent badges