Neuro Block 1-Pt-2

ptheodore's version from 2016-05-25 13:49


Question Answer
In what week does the ectoderm thickens and becomes the neural plateThird Week
Anterior Neuropore becomesLamina Terminalis
In what week does neuropores close4th Week
Olfactory Placodes becomeCN I
Otic Placodes becomeThe organ of Corti, spiral ganglion, the cristae, maculae utriculi and sacculi, vestibular ganglion, and CN VIII
Marginal (or outer) layer (Cells of the Neural Tube) develops intoWhite Matter
Mantle (or intermediate) layer (Cells of the Neural Tube) develops intoGrey Matter (Neurons and Glia)
What develops into the lining of the central canal of the spinal cord, and the ventricles. Sometimes referred to as the ependymal layer and ventricular layer.Neuroepithelial (or inner) layer (Cells of the Neural Tube)
AFP levels are _____in Down’s syndrome, but ______in other neural tube defects.Decreased & Increased
Neurofibromas on the skin, pigmented skin lesions (café au lait spots) and pigmented iris hamartomas (Lisch nodules)Neurofibromatosis type 1 (Neural crest clinical)
Bilateral Brain tumors (acoustic neuroma/schwannoma)Neurofibromatosis type 2 (Neural crest clinical)
The notochord becomes theNucleus Pulposus
Plays a role in neurodevelopment of motor neurons before it becomes nucleus pulposus, by producing Sonic Hedgehog protein (Morphogen). It plays a key role in regulating vertebrate organogenesis, such as in the growth of digits on limbs and organization of the brain.Notochord
Bundles of axons that connect one hemisphere to the otherCommissures
The neuroblasts of the alar plate becomeDorsal Horns (in the spinal cord)
The neuroblasts of the basal plate becomeAnterior Horns (in the spinal cord)
What separates the alar and basal plates from midbrain through spinal cord.Sulcus Limitans
In the brainstem, ____ plate becomes afferent (sensory) components of CN’s, ____ plate becomes efferent (motor) componentsAlar & Basal
Sensory information from dermatomes enters cord here.Dorsal horns of the spinal cord
Motor neuron cell bodies located here (axons go out to the muscles).Ventral horns of the spinal cord
CSF leaves the 4th ventricle through theForamen of Magendie/ Luschka/Medial Aperture
Which brain structure is responsible for coordination and balance of the trunk/torsoVermis of Cerebellum
Cortex neurons migrate to their specific locations by ‘climbing’ along ______ (like ropes going from inner to outer regions). Only present during development (also unipolar cell).Radial Glia Cells
Anterior pituitary derives fromOral Ectoderm (Rathke’s)
The APGAR scale, used to evaluate newborn’s cardio and neuro functions (typically done______after birth)1 and 5 minutes
White matter infarcts (strokes) occurring during hypotensive episodes in premature infants. Usually bilateral, can often result in diplegia or quadriplegia. One potential cause of cerebral palsy.Periventricular Leukomalacia
Affects 10% of the population caused by a defect in the vertebral arches. Asymptomatic. Patient may sometimes have small hair patch over area.Spina Bifida Occulta
All types of spina bifida result from failure of the closure of thePosterior (caudal) neuropore
Meninges project through a vertebral defect.Spina Bifida Cystica With Meningocele
Both the meninges and spinal cord end up outside the vertebral arches.Spina Bifida Cystica With Meningomyelocele
The open neural tube lies on the surface of the back. The cord did not close.Spina Bifida Cystica With Myelocele (or Myeloschisis)
A meningomyelocele with greatly enlarged central canal of spinal cord.Syringomyelocele
Absence of skull and cerebral hemispheres. Results from lack of closure of anterior neuropore.Anencephaly
Results from non closure of the posterior end of the neural tube.Rachischisis
Characterized by one large ventricle (instead of two lateral), and fusion of midline structures (thalamus, etc).Holoprosencephaly
Cyclopia is seen inHoloprosencephaly
Cyst formation typically post-infarctionPorencephaly
Absence of gyri (large ventricle)Lissencephaly
Bournville’s diseaseTuberous sclerosis
The distinction between gray/white matter is lost in some areas, resulting in ‘tubers’; enlarged firm white gyri. Seizures and retardation are evident early in life.Tuberous sclerosis
The most common cause of Hydrocephalus isViral infection (Cytomegalovirus or Toxoplasma Gondii).
A developmental abnormality in which the hemispheres are absent and essentially replaced by CSF.Hydrocephalus
An extreme form of porencephaly, characterized with cysts or cavities within the cerebral hemisphere.Hydrancephaly
Herniation of cerebellar tonsils into foramen magnum. Herniation is NO more than 3mm below foramen magnum.Arnold-Chiari Syndrome (Type 1)
Downward displacement (herniation) of cerebellar vermis and medulla through foramen magnum. Herniation >3mm, including cerebellar vermisArnold-Chiari Syndrome (Type 2)
Herniation of the brainstem and cerebellum outside of skull. Encephalocele (also known as cranium bifidum) is the term for the protruding ‘sac’ of tissues.Arnold-Chiari Syndrome (Type 3)
Results from very large dilation of the 4th ventricle (the foramina allowing CSF to flow from 4th ventricle to subarachnoid space don’t open properly). In addition to 4th ventricle enlargement, the vermis (middle portion of the cerebellum) is usually absent. The development of posterior fossa cysts are also common.Dandy-Walker Syndrome
Failure of foramina of Luschka & Magendie to open (dilation of 4th ventricle)Dandy-Walker Syndrome
Born with complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum. Does not develop properly during pregnancy. The axons that should cross to the opposite side stay on the same side of the brain, forming Probst bundles.Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum
Congenital defect resulting in a fissure of part of the eye, most often the iris, usually inferior/nasal. Often extends into the ciliary body. Unlikely to impair vision.Coloboma Iridis
One iris different color from the other.Heterochromia Iridum
Causes of Heterochromia Iridum with the iris being lighterHorner’s & Hirschsprung’s Disease
Causes of Heterochromia Iridum with the iris being darkerLisch nodules (hamartomas of the iris, in NF 1) & Sturge-Weber Syndrome.

CSF, Ventricles & Meninges

Question Answer
Space between the skull & dura materPotential Space
Layer of the dura matter that is nearer the skullEndosteal Layer
Layer of the dura mater near the brainMeningeal Layer
The endosteal and meningeal layers are always together, except when they separate to form theSinuses
The meninges that follows the brain surfacePia Mater
Which space contains veins, arteries, and cerebrospinal fluid.Subarachnoid Space
Arachnoid and pia membranes are connected by ligaments calledTrabeculae
Arachnoid and pia together are sometimes referred to as theLeptomeninges
Middle Meningeal Artery is a branch ofMaxillary Artery (a branch of the external carotid).
Which artery is involved in epidural hematoma.Middle Meningeal artery
Which artery runs right underneath the pterion, the weakest skull suture.Middle Meningeal Artery
What helps Protect the brain, provide buoyancy, removes waste matter and helps in hormonal distributionVentricular System and CSF
Total volume of CSF in brain125-150 ml
Normal pressure (Important for Lumbar Puncture)150-180mm Hg
Average production of CSF400-500 ml/day
Lateral Ventricles connect to 3rd ventricle viaForamina of Monroe (Interventricular Foramen)
3rd Ventricle connects to 4th ventricle viaCerebral Aqueduct (Aqueduct Of Sylvius)
4th Ventricle connects toCentral Canal of Spinal Cord, and Subarachnoid Space
CSF leaves the ventricular system via three foramenTwo Lateral (foramina of Luschka) & One Medial (foramen of Magendie)
The Two Lateral foramen (foramina of Luschka) that CSF leaves through goes to theSubarachnoid Space
The Medial (foramen of Magendie) that CSF leaves through goes to theCentral Canal of Spinal Cord
Large spaces in the subarachnoid space where the arachnoid membrane does not closely follow the surface of the brain.Cisterns
How does CSF exit the brain?It drains into the sinuses via extensions from the subarachnoid space called subarachnoid granulations (villa)
What kind of hematoma do you get with a blow to the side of head, and which artery would most likely ruptureEpidural hematoma & Middle Meningeal Artery.
The dural layers, particularly the _________ & _________, restrict side to side motion more than anterior/posterior motion.Falx Cerebri & Tentorium Cerebelli

Spinal cord and Tracts

Question Answer
what do spinal thalamic tracts convey?Pain, temperature and light touch aka crude touch
What will the spinocerebellar tracts use for receptors?golgi tendon organs of the muscle spindles, proprioception
First order neurons bring informationfrom the periphery into CNS
What is the job of all second order neurons?to decussate
Where do all 3rd order neurons go?Thalamus (VPL)
All 3rd order neurons ascendto sensory areas of cortex and then go to post central gyrus (Bradman area 1,2, 3)
What can we say about dorsal white matter? all are sensory
Lateral and anterior white matter aremixed because they have both descending motor and ascending sensory
The function of anterolateral spinothalamic tract is to conveypain, temperature & basic tactile such as light touch, pressure, stretch
The spinothalamic tract axons decussate ----------------and ascend -------------------immediately and contralaterally
Tract of Lissauer is the branching of1st order neuron
What does neopspinothalamic mean?spinothalamic tract info is the same in everyone
What does paleospinothalamic mean?spinothalamic tract info will vary in individuals
What symptoms will you observe if there is right side lesion of the spinothalamic tract?loss of pain, temperature and crude touch contralateral
Where would you see the symptoms for left side lesion of the Dorsal (horn) Column aka Medial Leminiscus?loss of fine touch, conscious proprioception & vibration ipsilateral
What can you say about the symptoms of spinothalamic tract damageContralateral
Where does the 2nd order neurons of the medial leminiscus aka dorsal column synapse?caudal medulla (nucleus gracilis for leg/nucleus cognates for arm)
Where does the second order neurons are located for spinothalamic tract?spinal cord
The medial Leminiscus is made offascicli gracilis and fascicle cognates
A 36 year old has a left side lesion of the cord at C4, right side is completely intact. Where is he going to lose dorsal column information?Left side
A 36 year old has a left side lesion of the cord at C4, right side is completely intact. Where is he going to lose pain, temperature and crude touch?Right side
In which clinical condition transection of one path of the cord, left or right will give you a weird set of symptoms both ipsilateral and contralateral?Brown-Sequard syndrome
If I have a spinothalamic lesion on my right arm at C5, my pain loss should becontralateral at the level of C6 or C7
Which motor neurons are great for localized pain?LMNs

Dermatomes, Peripheral Nerves, and Receptors

Question Answer
Thumb & Index Finger dermatomesC6
Middle Finger dermatomeC7
Ring Finger & Pinky dermatomeC8
Umbilical dermatomeT10
Quadriceps dermatomeL2
Bikini area dermatomeL1
Big Toe and Toes 2 & 3L5
Anterior of Tigh dermatomeL3
Toes 4 & 5 (pinky)S1
Biceps brachii tendon reflexC5, C6
Triceps tendon reflexC6, C7
Brachioradialus tendon reflexC5, C6
Upper Abdominal superficial reflexesT6-T7
Middle Abdominal superficial reflexesT8-T9
Lower Abdominal superficial reflexesT10-T12
Patellar tendon reflexL2, L3, L4
Achilles tendon reflexS1, S2
Most peripheral receptors utilize ___ type fibers, except free nerve endings (pain) which also utilize ____type fibers (slow pain).II (A-β) & IV (C)
What do these have in common; Free nerve endings, Hair Follicle Receptors, Merkel’s DiscsEncapsulated Receptors
What do these have in common; Krause’s End Bulbs (Bulboid Corpuscle), Meissner’s corpuscles, Pacinian Corpuscles, Ruffini’s corpusclesNonecapsulated receptors
Rapidly adapting sensors give info about changes inStimulation
Slowly adapting receptors give info aboutOngoing stimulation
Which receptors give information about; Pain, Temperature (Cold & Warm), Tickling & ItchingFree Nerve Ending
Which receptors give information about; slow adapting pressure & some two-point discrimination (Fine Touch).Merkel's Discs
Hair Follicle Receptors are what kind of receptorsMechanical (activation of free nerve ending.)
Which receptors give information about; Rapidly adapting, for fine touch (ie. two point discrimination) & also contributes to vibratory sensationMeissner's Corpuscles
Which receptors give information about; Rapidly adapting, for vibrationPacinian/Lamellar Corpuscles
Lamellar Corpuscles A.K.APacinian Corpuscles
Slow adapting stretch receptors that also respond to heat. Also Contributes to proprioceptive information.Ruffini’s Corpuscles
Receptors for Cold sensationKrause's End Bulbs (Bulboid Corpuscle)
Two types of intrafusal fibers in the neuromuscular spindlesNuclear Bag & Nuclear Chain
This sensory feedback provides proprioceptive information about changes in muscle length.Neuromuscular Spindles
Alpha motor neurons are what type of fibers in the Neuromuscular SpindlesExtrafusal muscle fibers (Big)
Gamma motor neurons are what type of fibers in the Neuromuscular SpindlesIntrafusal muscle fibers (mini). This provides the sensory feedback in the Neuromuscular Spindles
When the capsule is stretched, free nerve endings inside are activated, and transmit information to the spinal cord, where it synapses on alpha motor neurons.This is an inhibitory effect; to prevent too much tension on the muscles.Golgi Tendon Organs:
A ‘capsule’ of loosely arranged tendon fibers.Golgi Tendon Organs
Tapping on the tendon elicits the stretch reflex known asMyotatic
Provides proprioceptive informationGolgi Tendon Organs
One spinal nerve innervates oneSomite
What consists of a dermatome, a myotome (muscles) and a sclerotome (bones and ligaments) A somite
Virus resides dormant in sensory nerves; when reactivated causes pain and rash in the affected Dermatomes (specific).Shingles (Herpes zoster)
What type of nerves does Shingles (Herpes zoster) virus reside dormant inSensory Nerves
The only sensation that outlast the stimuliPain
The only sensation you can’t elicit on yourselfTickling

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