Neuro Block 1-Pt-1

ptheodore's version from 2015-05-23 00:37

Brodmann’s Areas

Question Answer
44, 45Broca’s area
22Wernicke’s area
22, 39 and 40 Wernicke’s area
8Frontal eye field
4Primary motor gyrus
1,2,3Primary sensory gyrus
17Primary visual fields

Major Subdivisions of the Brain

Question Answer
Cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, lateral ventricles & Olfactory bulbsTelencephalon
Epithalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus, pineal gland, 3rd ventricle, optic nerve (retina) and chiasmDiencephalon
Midbrain and cerebral aqueductMesencephalon
Pons, cerebellum, upper part of 4th
Medulla, lower part of 4th ventricleMyelencephalon
Telencephalon and DiencephalonProsencephalon
Metencephalon and MyelencephalonRhombencephalon

Nerve Fibers

Question Answer
1a (A-α)Proprioception, muscle spindles (Sensory)
1b (A-α)Proprioception, Golgi tendon organs (Sensory)
II (A-β)Touch, Pressure, and vibration (Sensory)
III (A-δ)Touch, pressure, fast pain, and temperature (Sensory)
IV (C)Slow Pain and temperature, unmyelinated fibers (Sensory)
Alpha (A-α)Alpha motor neurons of ventral horn (innervate extrafusal muscle fibers)
Gamma (A-γ)Gamma motor neurons of ventral horn (innervate intrafusal muscle fibers)
Preganglionic autonomic fibers (B)Myelinated preganglionic autonomic fibers (Motor)
Postganglionic autonomic fibers (C)Unmyelinated postganglionic autonomic fibers (Motor).

Organization of the Nervous System

Question Answer
NeuroaxisCentral Nervous System
What consists of myelinated axonsWhite matter
Planning of motor movements.Basal ganglia
Coordination and BalanceCerebellum
What structures have to work together for proper execution of motor movements.Basal ganglia & Cerebellum
This structure is located in the Temporal lobe and is involved in long term memory formation. Also recognition of novelty, i.e. knowing something in your environment is new. Very helpful survival thingy.Hippocampus
Which lobe contains 25% of visionOccipital Lobe
Motor & Executive functions are handled by which lobeFrontal Lobe
Auditory & Olfactory are handled by which lobeTemporal Lobe
What is known as primary motor strip or primary motor cortex, and is also the origin of the corticospinal tract (which basically controls your voluntary movements). Precentral Gyrus
The primary sensory strip/cortex, receiving all somatic information (i.e. pain from your knee).Postcentral Gyrus
Are the meninges, and the tentorium cerebelli; cerebellum and brainstem located infratentorial of SupratentorialInfratentorial
Which brain hemisphere is usually dominantLeft Hemisphere
Language, Reasoning, numerical and scientific skills are locate on theLeft Hemisphere (everything else is on right)
‘Broca’s’ and ‘Wernicke’s’ areas are located on which hemisphereThe dominant Left hemisphere
Language productionBroca’s
Language comprehensionWernicke’s
What is essential for the planning and execution of skilled motor movements.The cerebellum
50% of the brain’s neurons are found in theCerebellum
What is the 1st brain structure affected by AlcoholCerebellum
Damage to what brain structure is often characterized by coma, ipsilateral cranial nerve deficits, and contralateral body deficits.Brainstem
Falx cerebri and Tentorium cerebelli are made fromDura Mater
What type of herniation lead to Duret hemorrhages, due to stretching of arteriesTranstentorial herniation
Blow to the side of the head usually cause what type of Hematoma & which artery is affectedEpidural Hematoma, Middle Meningeal Artery
Typically a patient with an_______ has a ‘lucid’ period, for 10-15 minutes (or thereabouts) after the injury the patient is alert and oriented (i.e. lucid). Cognitive abilities and mental status decline progressively after that. Epidural Hematoma
High fever, stiff neck (Nuchal rigidity), altered mental status, photophobia (Photosensitivity)Meningitis
Rash present and Neisseria meningitidus leads to what kind of meningitisMeningococcal
Which type of meningitis Occurs primarily in immunocompromised patients (HIV, etc).Fungal Meningitis
Inflammation not due to bacterial infection. Mostly viral but other causes (i.e. SLE).Aseptic Meningitis
Test for MeningitisLumbar Puncture, Kernig & Brudzinski sign
Stiff hamstrings result in an inability to fully extend the leg when hip is at right angle to supine patient.Kernig Sign
Passive neck or single hip flexion is accompanied by involuntary flexion of both hips.Brudzinski Sign
Opening pressure is _____in bacterial, but normal in viral, meningitis.Elevated
Cloudy and turbid (opaque, unclear,milky) CSF appearanceBacterial Meningitis
What is disrupted in meningitis, allowing for virus/bacteria/etc to penetrate into brainBlood Brain Barrier
Fluid leaking from blood vessels into white matter.Vasogenic Edema
WBC’s that enter the brain/CSF causeInterstitial Edema
Due to decreased blood flow. Occurs (Caused by the shutdown of the Na+ Pump).Cytotoxic Edema
Sleeping sicknessEncephalitis Lethargica
Patients were left in a ‘statue’ like condition, not speaking or moving. Assumed to be in a coma or similar state.Encephalitis Lethargica (Sleeping sickness)
Treatment for Encephalitis Lethargica (Sleeping sickness)L-DOPA
CSF is produced in theChoroid Plexus (of ventricles)
90% of berry aneurysms are found in theCircle of Willis
Worst headache of my lifeSubarachnoid Hemorrhage
Results from damage to the superior cerebral veins from a blow to back or front of head.Subdural Hematoma
Subdural Hematoma have what kind of shapeCrescent shape
Cranial Nerves 1,2 & 8 areBipolar Neurons (One Axon, One Dendrite)
First order NeuronsPseudounipolar & Bioplar Neurons
Golgi Type ILong axons
Golgi Type IIShort axons
InterneuronsGolgi Type II
Type of rough ER, ribosomes attached in the brainNissl Substance
Hirano bodies are seen inAlzheimer's Disease
Lafora bodies are seen inSeizure Disorders
Fast axonal transport200-400mm/day.
Slow axonal transport1-5mm/day.
Fast retrograde transport100-200mm/day.
Axonal/anterograde, powered byKinesin
Retrograde powered byDynein
Transports recycled membrane and lysosomes.Retrograde
Certain diseases/viruses utilize ______ transport to access the cell body (polio, herpes and rabies for ex).Retrograde
Transports vesicles and proteinsAnterograde
The nucleus moves away from the region of the axon hillock, and Nissl substance moves to periphery after cell damage.Chromatolysis
1. Hold capillaries in place with ‘foot processes’. 2. Removal of excess ions (K+ in particular) from the extracellular fluid. 3. Uptake of transmitter from synaptic cleft. 4. Assist in formation of the blood brain barrier.Astrocytes
Astrocytes communicate with each other viaGap Junctions
Provide structure and support for neurons, produce CSF, assist in forming the blood brain barrier, form scars for healing, and myelinate neurons.Glial Cells
Line the ventricles, produce CSF, help movement of CSF due to beating of cilia.Ependymal Cells (Ependymocytes)