Neuro Block 1 (ppt 5, 6, 7 & 8)

ptheodore's version from 2016-05-29 00:57

Spinal Tracts


Question Answer
Faciculus cuneatous starts atT6 and above
Faciculus gracillis starts atT7 and below
If I am in thoracic and I see gracillus only I know it has to belower thoracic
if I am in thoracic and I see gracillius and cuneatous I know it has to beupper thoracic
Spinocerebellar tracts conveyunconscious proprioception
What are other symptoms for LMN?Flaccid paralysis, Atrophy, Loss or diminished reflex
Lesions of the UMNsBabenski sign, spasticity/paralysis, hyper-reflexia
Corticospinal tract originates from ----- and decussates at the----------and talks to all the lower motor neuronsprecentral gyrus and internal capsule
The prime location for hypertensive strokesInternal capsule
LMNs are from the --------- to-------------spinal cord/muscles
UMNs are from the ---------to-------------brain/spinal cord
Which Bradman area goes on left side go to upper motor neuron and cross to right side and synapse in spinal cord and talk to lower motor neuron on right side to send signal to contract armPrecentral gyrus (paracentral lobule anterior)
Loss of voluntary control of muscles, loss of bowel & bladder control but cognition and ANS usually intactDegeneration of both UMN & LMN
Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is caused due to lesion ofboth UMNs & LMNs
Degeneration of LMNs will lead toFlaccid paralysis and muscles atrophy
You see Babinski sign inUMNs lesions
Poliomyelitis is only damaged the anterior horn of the spinal corddegeneration of LMNs
hyper-reflexia is only seen withUMNs damaged
Presence of Babinski sign, hyper-reflexia, rigidity is an example ofUMNs symptoms
Receives information on pain, temperature, and touch, predominantly C type fibersSubstantia gelatinosa
Receives type A fibers, painMarginal layer
Receives both A and C fibers from spinothalamic tractsNucleus proprius
Proprioception from spinocerebellar tracts, and also from dorsal columnsNucleus dorsalis
What type of information does the spinothalamic tract bring to the brainpain, temperature, crude touch & pressure
Branches from vertebral/subclavian supplement blood supply in cervical regions, branches from descending aorta for thoracic/lumbar regionsSegmental/radicular arteries
Supplies most of the blood in the lower part of spinal cordgreat anterior radicular artery
Symptoms of anterior root lesionmuscle atrophy and muscle paralysis
Syphilis can cause damage/lesion to the---------------- at the point of entry into the spinal cord dorsal root
Ataxia and hypotonia are due to loss ofproprioceptive information
Which type pf ciliated cells that allow movement of CSF from lateral ventricles through the subarachnoid space?Ependymal cells
All types of spina bifida result from failure of the ------- to closePosterior (caudal) neuropore
A clinical condition where both the meninges and spinal cord end up outside the vertebral archesMeningomyelocele
A meningomyelocele with greatly enlarged central canal of spinal cordSyringomyelocele
A neuronal tube defect resulting from non-closure of the posterior end of the neural tubeRachischisis
A neuronal tube defect with is often associated with severe facial defects such as cyclopiaHoloprosencephaly
Porencephalycyst formation typically post-infarction
Lissencephalyabsence of gyri (large ventricle)
The distinction between gray/white matter is lost in some areas, resulting in ‘tubers’; enlarged firm white gyri. Seizures and retardation are evident early in lifeBournville’s disease aka Tuberous sclerosis
Most common cause is fetal viral infectioncytomegalovirus (CMV) or Toxoplasma gondii
Hydrancephaly is an extreme form of porencephaly, which is characterized with cysts or cavities within the cerebral hemisphere.
Herniation of cerebellar tonsils into foramen magnumArnold-Chiari Syndrome
Herniation of brainstem and cerebellum outside of skullType III Arnold-Chiari Syndrome
Type IV Arnold-Chiari syndromeHerniation of brainstem and cerebellum outside of skull and lack of development of cerebellum
A clinical condition which is resulting in very large dilation of the 4th ventricle and absence of vermisDandy-Walker syndrome
A congenital malformation resulting in downward displacement of the cerebellar tensils through foramen magnumType I Arnald- Chiari Syndrome
A congenital malformation resulting in downward displacement of the cerebellar vermis and medulla through foramen magnum and compressed IV ventricleType II Arnold-Chiari Syndrome
A congenital malformation resulting in failure of foramina of Luschka & Magendie to open due to dilatation of IV ventricleDandy-Walker syndrome

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