Neuro and others

llbgurl's version from 2015-10-06 21:12

Section 1

Question Answer
non-febrile seizures FMH, seizure lasts over 15 minutes, prior abonormal neuro examPheobarb or Valproic acid proph for seizures
.05-1mg/kg max 5 mgAtivian DOS less respiraratory depression
abnormal exam post seizures, hx of illness several days prior to seizure, slow recovery from febrile seizureneed LP
simple febrile seizureno labs are needed
fever present, seizure generalized, duration under 15 min, can reoccur with same illness, focal in natureNO eeg needed
genetic disorder of nervous system and affects developmental and growth of nerve cells and tissuesneurofibromatosis
most have learning disabilites neurofibromatosis
tumors grow on nerves and cause skin changes and bone deformitiesneurofibromatosis
5 or more lesion cafe au lait spots 5 mm pre-pubertyneurofibromatosis
6 or more lesions 15 mm post-pubertyneurofibromatosis
+ optic gliomaneurofibromatosis
axillary or inguanal freckelingneurofibromatosis
dx with MRIneurofibromatosis
increased DTR and sustained clonus, lower threshold for DTRcerebral palsy
Tx seizures, surgery, chemoneurofibromatosis
von recklinghausen dieaseneurofibromatosis
2.5 out every 1000 live birthscerebral palsy
neuromotor disorder d/t previous central motor system insultcerebral palsy
unknown cause; mom malnutrution, anoxia, toxemia, hyperbili, anoxia, traumacerebral palsy
assymetric movements, hypo or hyper toniacerebral palsy
early handedness, suck swallow problems, peristent toe walking, falls easycerebral palsy
involves all 4 extremitiesquadriplegia
involves both extremities on one side upper>lowerspatic hemiplegia
involves all 4 extremeties lower>upperspastic diplegia
invovles both legs with normal extermetiesspastic paraplegia
erbs palsybrachial plexus injury
sternoclidomastoid brachial plexus injury
disturbance in brain autoregulation and increase in glucose requirements for neuronsconcussion
females>malesconcussion bc they report more than males
prolonged HA/Dizziness, memory disturbance, seizuresmust refer
most easily treatable but most deadlyepidural hematoma
most common and least serious skull fracturelinear fracture
BP decreases = cuts off circulation to brain = LOCNeurogenic Syncope most common
standing get warm, nausea, lightheaded, visual grayoutprodome of neurogenic syncope
prolonged syncope can cause seizurereclining position restores BF and LOC

Section 2

Question Answer
never use these type of drops in kids eyesTobradex (steriods)
eyes malleable up to age7-9
nearsighted (can see near but not far)myopia
increased in premiesmyopia
farsighted (can see far but not close)hyperopia
must resolve by age 6hyperopia
most common in 8-10 year oldsmyopia
each eye with a different refractive erroransometropia
lazy eye with some blindnessambylopia
axial length of eye or corneal lense curvaturerefractive error
opacity in eyecataracts
aquos humor damages the optic nerveglaucoma
trisomy 21, diabetes, marfans, rubella, maternal infectioncataract
big blue eyesglaucoma
tearing, photophobia and excessive blinkingglaucoma
+ leukocoriaglaucoma
28 weeks and below 1500 grams or 29-34 weeks above 1500 grams but unstable hospital courseROP
examine at 4-6 weeks CHRONOlogic ageROP
infection with Staph Aeurus, H. Influenza, S. PneumoniaDacrosystitis
sick baby with fever and swelling of eyeER
most common conjunctivitis 2nd week after birthchlamydia
most common conjunctivitis 2 days after birthgonorrhea
can cause loss of vision if not treated Gonorrhea Optho
unilateral edema, induration, left shiftperorbital cellulitis
erythromycin treat 2-3 weeks, hospital for respiratory distresschlamydia conjunctivitis
7 days of ceftriaxone treatmentgonorrhea conjuncitivits
usually associated with pharyngitis or OM and resolves in 2 weeks by selfviral conjunctivitis
crusted purluent drainage, lashes upon wakeningbacterial conjunctivtis
polytrim, vigamox above 1 yr of agebacterial conunctivitis
stringy white discharge, + eosinophiliaallergic conunctivitis
patanol, cromolyn sodium, zaditorallergic conjuncitivitis
inflammed eyelash follicles or sebacous glands, not tenderblepheritis
gritty sensationbelpherits
contact wearer, infectious person, eyelid swellingbelpherits
infection of eyelid, sebaccous gland or moebian glands, tenderhordlum
FB sensationhordlum
tender, + eyelid furniclehordlum
caused by s. aeurus or p. aeurgenoushordlum
chronic inflammation of eyelid, NOT tender, slow growingchalizion
rhythmic jerkeing in eyes, 80% congenital, ok in first month of life otherwise must refer ASAPnystagmus
albanism tumorsnystagmus
eye turns in/up/out/downstrabismus
hirschbery pupillary light reflex number one test for thisstrabismus
EOMI abnormal/cover or uncover test abnormalstrabismus
6 months and older abnormal and must referstrabismus
most common type of hearing lossconductive
blocked transmissionconductive
caused by OM with effusion, FB or waxconductive
damage to choclear structure or auditory nervesensinoral
TORCHES, premies, meningitis, Aminoglyocides/gentamycin, EXPOSED TO LOUD NOISESsensinoral
gold standard for assessing TM mobilitypneumatic otoscopy
#1 cause of hearing loss in childrenotitis media with effusion
can determine when chemical has neutralized in eyelitmus paper
hard, fixed nodes with no source of infectionorder CBC, ESR, CXR and r/o cancer
nonquantitative watch if child attempts to fixate on moms face1 month old vision check
order a CT to r/o increased ICPmacrocephaly
increased risk of hydrocephalusprematurity
chemical irritationfirst 24 horus of life
days 2-5 of lifegonorrhea
2nd week of lifechylamidia and most common
most common cause of reccurent OM and ConjuncitvitisHIB
most common viral cause of conjuncitivitisadenovirus
most common cause of bacterial conjunctivitiss. pneumonia and HIB
greatest risk for re-bleedhyphema
pearly white opacity in upper outter TMchoesteotoma
more prone to intracranial abscesses with sinusitisadolescent males
increased risk for periorbital cellulitissinusitis
should not participate in swimming or divingsinusitis
painful ulcerated lesion on an errythematous baseapthous ulcer
not prevented with abx in strep pharyngitisglomerular nephritis
infectious mono+ lymphocytosis NOT ANA

Section 3

Question Answer
right of an individual to self dtermine freely govern own actionsautonomy
professional agreement or duty to help othersbeneficence
do no harmnon-maleficence
fair distrubution of resources and rights; whats best for the community as a wholejustice
faithfullness/obligation to patientfidelity
greatest good for greatest number of peopleutilitarnism
recognize others judgement and beliefsrespect for others

Section 4

Question Answer
health care organizationsJCAHO
protects health care workersOSHA
quality of managed plansNCAQ
EBP guidelinesALTRQ
medicaid early screening treatmentEPSDT
increase quality of healthy years of healthy lifespa and eliminate health disparitieshealthy people 2020

Section 5

Question Answer
child with anaphlayxsis to bakers yeasthepatitis B
anaphlyaxsis to eggs can still geflu vaccine
infant gets both Hep B vaccine and HBIG+ hep b mom
Hep B in infants1991
Hep b in adolescents1996
decreases rye syndrome, shingles and invasive varicellavarivax
does not decrease asa sensitivityvarivax
rare mild cases of chicken pox have been reported in immunizated patientsvarixax
pooled blood product with excellent saftey profilevaricella IVIG
do not give if allergic to neomycinvaricella
highest mortality rate for varicellaages 30-49

Section 6

Question Answer
breast enlargementthelarche
adrenarchepubic hair
pneumonia and can be seen with abdominal painpneumonia
urine output less than 8 hrs infant 12 hours childsevere dehydration
peniatoo little like thrombocytopenia low platlets
probioticsshorten diariehal illness with acute gastro
themiatoo many polycythemia
rotavirusmost common viral stools
camblyobactermost common bacterial stools
gardiamost common parasitic stools
absent or blockedatrasia
unnatural connectionfistula
must pass stoolin 24-36 hours of life
most common cause of painless swellinghydrocele
direct herniaabove 3 years old
indirect herniaunder 3 years old
communicatingopen more likely to turn into hernia
after 1 year of age if still present must referhernia
heart defects, cleft palate, poor immune systemDigeorge syndrome 21q112 deletion
low calcium in blood with poor development have behavior and emotional problemsDigeorge syndrome 21q112 deletion
baby white cells. If body making too many new WBCs its attempting to fight off a very active infectionbands
increase in immature wbcs, in cascade wbc's are on the left sideleft shift

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