Neuro 2

veraduca's version from 2016-10-11 08:51


Question Answer
What happens to the distribution of sensory and motor components as we move up from the spinal cord to the medulla?the sensory moves more lateral and motor moves more medial
What's the ventral side of the medulla called?pyramid next to olive
what's the sulci associated with the olive?preolivary sulcus and postolivary sulcus
what cranial nerves come out of the pre and post olivary sulcus respectively?preolivary sulcus = hypoglossal (XII), post olivary sulcus (glossopharyngeal IX, vagus X and spinal accessory XI)
what's the junction of the pons and medulla?pontomedullary junction
what CN comes out of the pontomedullary junction?VI, VII and VIII
what's the only CN that arises out of the dorsal surface of the brain?trochlear nerve (IV)
what do all second order sensory neurons do?decussate (cross to the other side after synapse in the medulla)
what's a lemniscus?second order decussate sensory neuron
what's the course of a sensory neuron?1st order from organ and synapse in the dorsal horn, dessicates as second order neuron and synapse in the thalamus, travel as third order neuron to the cortex
what's the course of a motor neuron?upper motor neuron decussate in the medula, then comes down the corticospinal tract and synapse in the ventral horn and becomes the lower motor neuron which goes to the muscle
what's the cerebral peduncle?they carry fibers that will be are in the corticospinal tract
what's in the pyramid?upper motor neuron, they decussate in the medulla into the lateral corticospinal tract ont he opposite side
what's the medial lemniscus?where the nucleus gracillus and nucleus cuneatus decussate in the medulla
course of the trigeminal sensory nerves?the come in as first order sensory neurons from the pons down to the medula through the spinal tract of V, they synapse in the nucleus of spinal tract of V then decussate to the other side in the trigeminothalamic lamiscus (tract) and is now a second order neuron
what happens if we leision areas of medulla?bi-lateral loss of function
what's right next to the hypoglossal nucleus?dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (X)
what's the nucleus solitarius?sensory nucleus that brings in all the taste sensation fibers. the fibers synapse and go up by way of fasiculus solitarius
what's the nucleus ambiguous?it drives all skeletal muscles in the larynx and pharynx. it supplies lower motor neurons to CN IX and X
what's the 1 muscle that glossapharyngeal nerve innervates?stylopharyngeus
what's the inferior olive a sign of?that we are in the rostral medulla
draw the location of the nuclei in the rostral and caudal medulla?ok
what's the medial longitudinal fasiculus?it connects the motor nuclei of the eye with the nuclei in the anterior horn in the cervical region responsible for musculature of the neck
if the corticospinal tract in the rostral medulla oblongata was leisioned, is the effect ipsolateral or contralateral?contralateral
what muscle (be specific) does CN IX innervate and what's the nucleus it passes through?ipsilateral stylopharyngeus, nucleus ambiguous
3 things and the corrsponding nucleus that CN IX are associated with?taste (nucleus solitarius), ipsolateral stylopharyngeus (nucleus ambiguous), parotid gland (inferior salvatory nucleus)
where does CN IX exit the medulla?post-olivary sulcus
what's the symptom of lesion of glossopharyngeal lesion?loss of gag reflex, parotid secretion
where does CN IX exit the skull?jugular foramen
where does CN X exit the skull?jugular foramen
where does CN X exit the medulla?post-oliveray sulcus
what are three nucleus associated with CN X?nucleus ambiguous for innervation of ipsolateral skeletal muscles of soft palate, pharynx and larynx, nucleus solitarius for sensation from larynx, heart, lungs and GI, dorsal motor nucleus for parasympathetic innervation of cardiac and smooth muscle of heart lungs and GI (up to left cholic flecture)
course of CN XI?originates from C2 - C5, ascends up jugular foramen, exits through the foramen magnum
lesion of CN XI?ipsolateral loss of ability to shrug and turn head
the nucleus and function CN XII is associated with?hypoglossal nucleus and it's responsible for tongue musculature
hypoglossal lesion?tongue points towards side of lesion
what's the raphe nuclei?responsible for pain and works by way of tectospinal tract
which nucleus is the area postrema located next to?dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (for parasympathetic of GI, heart etc)


Question Answer
why is pons so big?fibers that are running to the cerebellum
what connects the brainstem to the cerebellums?cerebellar peduncles
how many cerebellar peduncles are there?3: superior, inferior and middle
what are corticopontene tracks?goes from the cortex to the pons, they are intermingled with the corticospinal tract
what are corticobulbar tracks?goes from cortex to cranial nerve nuclei, they are intermingled with the corticospinal tract
what's different about the medial lemniscus in the pons?they are rounder and less rectangular, it's starting to go more laterally
what are some new structures found in the pontomedullary junction but not in medulla?vestibular nuclei, cochlear nuclei, vestibular/chochlear nerve, superior olive and inferior cerebellar peduncle
what's the central tegmental tract?heading downstream to provide parts of the tectospinal tract
two new nuclei in the caudal pons?facial (VII) and abducens (VI)
the three nucleus associated with facial n. (CN VII)?facial nucleus in caudal pons (motor), superior salivatory nucleus (parasympathetic), nucleus tract to salitarius (sensory)
course of the facial N. motor fibers?ascend up, go around the abdusence nucleus, then descend down and out
if we lesion the area around the medial lemniscus, what do we lose?contralateral loss of sensation in touch
course of the pontine nerves?down the pontocerebellar tracts, decussate and up to the middle cerebellar peduncle on the opposite side
where's the motor nucleus of V found?middle pons
what's the lateral lemniscus involved in?audition
the course of the sensory fibers of V?trigeminal nerve branches --> trigeminal ganglion --> descended down the spinal tract of V --> spinal nucleus of V --> decussate and ascend trigeminalthalamic nucleus --> thalamus --> cortex (postcentral gyrus)
course of the motor fibers of V?upper motor neurons run down as corticobulbar fibers and synapse at the motor nucleus of V, lower motor neurons extend out by way of V3 to 8 muscles
8 muscles innervated by V3?temporalis, masseter, lateral and medial pterygoids, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid and anterior belly of digastric
what's the mesencephalic nucleus?runs the proprioceptive aspect of the trigeminal, runs up to the midbrain
what muscle does CN VI innervate?lateral rectus
the muscles that are innevated by facial nerve?2nd brachial arch muscles - facial muscles, stapedius, stylohyoid, post belly of digastric
where does CN VII exit the brain?pontomedullary junction, laterally
which 3 CNs contribute to nucleus salitarius?VII, IX and X
where do the vestibular nuclei project to?4 places. 1 = vestibulospinal tract in the spinal chord, 2 = to the eye motor nuclei (III, VI and IV) through medial longitudinal fasciculus , 3 = cerebellum, 4 = cortex
where are the cell bodies of vestibulocochlear nerve?spiral ganglia
what's the locus ceruleus?noradrenergic, involved in sleep/wake, know where it's located in the pons
effects of leisioning of CN V?all ipsilateral affects, eight muscles affected, sensation from face
lesion of CN VI?loss of function in ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle, diplopia
what' strabismus?eye deviates medially
lesion of CN VII?facial muscle paralysis + 3 muscles, parasympathetics to lacrimal, sublingual and submandibular glands, bell's palsy
lesion of vestibulococholear nerve (VII)?vestibular effects: balance, nystagmus coordination; auditory effects - tinnitus, unilateral loss (peripheral)
central lesion of VIII?bilateral loss of hearing
peripheral loss of VIII?unilateral loss of hearing
what's acoustic neuroma?tumor that compresses VII and VIII


Question Answer
Main function of cerebellar function?coordination of skeletal muscle action, balance, muscle tone, error correcting routine
is the cerebellum ipsilateral or contralateral?ipsilateral
what must happen for the right cerebrum to talk with the left cerebellum?decussation in both directions
what's the superior cerebellum peduncle responsible for?mostly efferents
where do the fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle run to?the red nucleus in the mid brain --> inferior olive for regulatory loop, also to the thalamus --> cortex, and vestibular nuclei
what's the middle cerebellar peduncle responsible for?mostly afferent from pons and cortex
what's the inferior cerebellar peduncle responsible for?afferent as well as efferents for the vestibular nuclei
where's the point of decussation for cerebellum to cerebrum?sperior cerebellar decussation in the mid brain
three portions of the cerebellum?vermis, intermediate and lateral part
what happens in the vermis of the cerebellum?controls proximal extremity and trunk muscles
what happens in the intermediate part of the cerebellum?controls the distal extremity muscles
what happens in the lateral part of the cerebellum?motor planning for extremities
what's the flocculonodular lobe?involved in balance and vestibulo-occular reflexes, found in the inferior view of the cerebellum. it's between the anterior and posterior lobe. TLDR:VISUAL TRACKING.
what are three deep cerebellar nuclei?dentate nucleus, interposed nuclei and fastigial nucleus
distribution of the 3 deep cerebellar nuclei?dentate works with lateral cerebellar cortex, interposed nuclei works with intermediate cerebellar cortex, fastigial nucleus works with vermis and flocculonodular regions
what's the two nuclei found in the interposed nuclei?emboliform and globus nuclei
acrynym for the deep nuclei of cerebellum?Don't Eat Greasy Food (dentate, emboliform, globus and fastigial)
what's inside the 3 layers of the cerebellar cortex?white mater
four inputs to the cerebellum?spinal cord via spinocerebellar tract, vestibular input, auditory and visual input (from cortical information), other cortical input
where do the spinocerebellar tracts run to inside the cerebellum?vermis (proximal muscles) or intermediate (distal muscles of extremities)
what kind of information do the spinocerebellar tracts bring to the cerebellum?proprioceptive information, and interneuron information
pathway of cerebrocerebellum connection?corticopontine tracts --> synapse in pontine nuclei --> opontocerebellar tract --> decussates and go up the middle cerebellar peduncle --> lateral part of the cerebellum
where do vestibular nuclei come in to the cerebellum?flocullonodulo region by way of inferior cerebellar peduncle
What are mossy fibers?excitatory fibers coming in from spinal chord, vestibular nuclei and cortex
what's the climbing fibers?comes from inferior olivary nucleus, project into cerebellar nuclei and purkingie cell dendrites, forms a regulatory loop: cerebellum --> red nucleus --> inferior olive --> cerebellum
how do the climbing fibers associate with the purkinjie cells?they climb on top of them directly
what's the final output from the cerebellum determined by?the Deep cerebellar nuclei contrasts the negative input from the purkinjie cell and the positive input from the climbing and mossy fibers
what's the final output from the cortex of the cerebellum?purkinjie cells
3 places where deep cerebellar nuclei project to?red nucleus to inferior olive to cerebellum, thalamus to cortex, vestibular nuclei
what's cerebellar ataxia?wide stance gait and intention tremor. deficit on the same side as lesion
what Dysdiadochokinesia?inability to do repeative motions, could be due to MS
what can be a result of cerebellar lesion?hypotonia, cerebellar ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, nystagmus, chiari malformation
what's chiari malformation?part of cerebellum extends down to the spinal cord and causes problems in the medullary portion.