Neuro 1 - Hypothalamus, Neurotransmitters, CNs + Brainstem, Seizures

gsafsaf's version from 2015-05-23 18:46


Question Answer
Lateral AreaHunger. Inhibited by leptin. "The pedal!"
Ventromedial areaSatiety. Stimulated by leptin. "The brakes!"
LeptinHormone made by adipose cells. Regulates energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (As if body is predisposition to always be hungry, unless this hormone is secreted) "It's the foot on the pedal or the breaks"
Anterior hypothalamusCooling, parasymptathetics.
Posterior hypothalamusHeating, sympathetics
Suprachiasmatic nucleusCircadian rhythm. "Master clock"
Preoptic nucleusReleases GnRH
Supraoptic nucleusProduces ADH
Paraventricular nucleusProduces Oxytocin. (Also CRH and TRH)
Arcuate nucleusReleases dopamine, Releases PULSATILE GnRH, regulates appetite too
Dorsomedial nucleusAlso regulates hunger; stimulation = obesity + 'savage' behavior
Mammillary bodiesMemory

Hypothalamic Lesions

Question Answer
Anorexia, failure to thrive (infants)Lesion of lateral area
Hyperphagia, 'savage' behaviorLesion of ventromedial area OR stimulation of dorsomedial nucleus
HyperthermiaLesion of Anterior hypothalamus
HypothermiaLesion of Posterior hypothalamus
Central DISupraoptic nucleus
Wernicke-KorsakoffMammillary bodies

Neurotransmitter pathways

Question Answer
Mesocortical pathwayVentral tegmental of midbrain -> cortex
Blockage of Mesocortical pathwayNegative Sx of schizophrenia (social withdrawal, depression)
Mesolimbic pathwayVentral tegmental of midbrain -> limbic system
Blockage of Mesolimbic pathway Relief of positive Sx of schizophrenia (delusions, hallucinations)
Nigostriatal pathwaySubstantia nigra of pars compact -> neostriatum
Blockage of Nigostriatal pathwayParkinson's dz
Tuberoinfundibular pathwayArcuate nucleus of hypothalamus -> pituitary
Blockage of Tuberoinfundibular pathwayIncreased release of prolactin from anterior pituitary
Locus ceruleusSite of NE synthesis
Reticular formationSite of NE synthesis
Solitary tractSite of NE synthesis
Raphe nucleiSite of Serotonin synthesis
Basal nucleus of MeynertSite of ACh synthesis
Required for GABA synthesisVit B6
Nucleus accumbensSite of GABA synthesis
Reticular formationPart of Reticular activating system (RAS)
Locus ceruleusPart of Reticular activating system (RAS)
Raphe nucleiPart of Reticular activating system (RAS)
Functions of Reticular activating system (RAS)Consciousness, wakefulness, attentiveness


Question Answer
CN nuclei V, VI, VII, VIIIPons
CN nuclei IX, X, XIIMedulla
CN nuclei XISpinal Cord
CN nuclei III, IVMidbrain
CN nuclei I, IIForebrain
Cribiform plateCN I
Superior orbital fissureCN III
Superior orbital fissureCN IV
Superior orbital fissureCN VI
Superior orbital fissureOpthalmic branch of CN V
Foramen rotundumMaxillary branch of CN V
Foramen ovaleMandibular branch of CN V
Runs thru cavernous sinusCN III
Runs thru cavernous sinusCN IV
Runs thru cavernous sinusCN VI
Runs thru cavernous sinusOpthalmic branch of CN V
Runs thru cavernous sinusMaxillary branch of CN V
Internal acoustic meatusCN VII
Internal acoustic meatusCN VIII
Corneal reflexCN V + VII
Lacrimal glandCN VII
Submandibular glandCN VII
Sublingual glandCN VII
Parotid glandCN IX
Taste to anterior 2/3 tongueCN VII
Closes jawTemporalis, Masseter, Medial pterygoid
Opens jawLateral pterygoid
Jugular foramenCN IX
Taste to posterior 1/3 tongueCN IX
Taste in extreme posterior of tongueCN X
Motor innervation of tongueCN XII
Taste in extreme posterior of tongueNucleus solitarius (NOT nucleus ambiguus)
Sensation in anterior 2/3 tongueMandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
Sensation in poster 1/3 tongueCN IX

CN Lesions

Question Answer
Unilateral Optive Nerve LesionNo vision in ipsilateral eye
Lesion of Optic ChiasmLoss of temporal vision in both eyes (bitemporal hemianopsia)
Lesion of Optic TractLoss of vision in contralateral visual field in both eyes (homonymous hemianopsia)
Macular degenerationLoss of vision in center of both eyes
PCA infarction (MCA spared)Loss of vision in contralateral visual field (Homonymous hemianopsia) with macular sparing
Eye looks up when adducted CN IV lesion
Eye deviates mediallyCN VI lesion
Eye deviates down and out (lateral strabismus)CN III lesion
Pupil dilationCN III lesion
PtosisCN III lesion
Afferent pupillary defect CN II
Efferent pupillary defect CN III lesion
Afferent pupillary defectShine light in one eye,neither pupil constricts "Marcus Gunn Pupil"
Efferent pupillary defect Pupil will not constrict when light shown in contralateral eye
Mass lesion of CN III more likely to compressParasympathetic fibers
Ischemic lesion of CN III more likely to affectMotor output to EOM
Vertical diplopia when reading or walking down stairsCN IV palsy
Ipsilateral Facial ParalysisBell's Palsy - Facial nerve/nucleus lesion
Upper and lower Facial ParalysisBell's Palsy - Facial nerve/nucleus lesion
Contralateral Facial ParalysisFacial motor cortex lesion (stroke)
Lower face paralysis Facial motor cortex lesion (stroke)
Lesion to CN X or nucleus ambiguus - uvula deviates to......away from side of lesion
Hypoglossal canalCN XII
Lesion to hypoglossal nerve or nucleus - tongue deviates......toward side of lesion

Sensory + a few motor tracts

Question Answer
Dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathwayFine touch
Dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathwayVibration
Dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathwayProprioception
Dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathwayPressure
Dorsal columnAscends on ipsilateral side of spinal cord
Dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathwayDecussates in medulla
Medial lemniscusAscends to Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus (VPLN) of thalamus
Spinothalamic tractPain
Spinothalamic tractTemperature
Spinothalamic tractAscends in Lissauer's tract on ipsilateral side of spinal cord
Spinothalamic tractDecussates in anterior white commissure
Spinothalamic tractAscends on contralateral side of spinal cord
Trigeminothalamic tractFacial pain (ipsilateral)
Trigeminothalamic tractFacial temperature (ipsilateral)
Lateral corticospinal tractTravels thru internal capsule
Lateral corticospinal tractMotor innervation
Lateral corticospinal tractDecussates in caudal medulla
Lateral corticospinal tractTravels thru medullary pyramids
Rostral midbrainRed nucleus
Rostral midbrainSuperior colliculi
Rostral midbrainCN III nuclei
Caudal midbrainCN IV nuclei
Medial lemniscus in Rostral midbrainLateral
Caudal midbrainInferior colliculi
Rostral midbrainsubstantia nigra
Medial ponsMLF
Medial ponsMedial lemniscus
Medial ponsCN VI nucleui
Medial ponsParamedian + Median branches of Basilar artery
Lateral ponsAnterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)
Lateral ponsCN VIII nucleui
Lateral ponsCN VII nucleui
Lateral ponsSpinal CN V tract + nucleus
Lateral MedullaInferior olivary nucleus
Medial MedullaMedullary pyramids
Medial MedullaCN XII nucleui
Medial MedullaMedial lemniscus
Supplied by anterior spinal arteryStructures in medial Medulla
Lateral MedullaLateral spinothalamic tract
Lateral MedullaSpinal CN V tract + nucleus
Lateral MedullaCN VIII nuclei
Lateral MedullaInferior cerebellar peduncle
Lateral MedullaNucleus ambiguus
Lateral + Ventral corticospinal tractsVoluntary command from motor cortex to body
Corticobulbar tractVoluntary motor command from motor cortex to head/neck
Vestibulospinal tractImportant for postural adjustments and head movements
Dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tractsPropropceptive information for the cerebellum
Brown-sequard syndromeIpsilateral UMN signs below the lesion
Brown-sequard syndromeIpsilateral dorsal column loss of information below the lesion
Brown-sequard syndromeContralateral pain and temp loss a 2-3segments below the lesion
Brown-sequard syndromeIpsilateral pain and temp. loss @ the level of lesion
Brown-sequard syndromeLMN signs @ level of lesion
ALS + Brown-sequard syndromeBoth upper and lower motor neuron involvement

Brainstem lesions

Question Answer
CNs originating in midbrainCN III, IV
CNs orignating in ponsCN V, VI, VII, VIII
CNs originating in medullaCN IX, X, XII
CNs with midline nucleiCN III, IV, VI, XII
Midline structureMotor pathway (corticospinal tract)
Midline structureMedial lemniscus
Midline structureMedial longitudinal fasciculus
Midline structureMotor cranial nerve nuclei
Weakness of contralateral arm + legMotor pathway (corticospinal tract)
Loss of vibration/proprioception/fine touch in contralateral arm + legMedial lemniscus
Ipsilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia (INO)Medial longitudinal fasciculus
Ipsilateral defects of CN III, IV, VI, XIIMotor cranial nerve nuclei
Lateral structureSpinocerebellar tract
Lateral structureSpinothalamic tract
Lateral structureSensory nucleus of CN V
Lateral structureSympathetic pathway
Ipsilateral arm + leg ataxiaSpinocerebellar tract
Alteration of pain/temp in contralateral arm + legSpinothalamic tract
Ipsilateral alteration of pain/temp on faceSensory nucleus of CN V
Ipsilateral Horner syndrome (ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis)Sympathetic pathway


Question Answer
One area of brain; often temporalPartial seizure
Preceded by auraPartial serizure
Intact consciousness Simple partial seizure
Altered consciousness Complex partial seizure
Affect brain diffuselyGeneralized seizure
Petit mal (absence)Generalized seizure
Lip smackingPetit mal
StaringPetit mal
MyoclonicGeneralized seizure
Brief, involuntary muscle twitchingMyoclonic
Grand mal (tonic-clonic)Generalized seizure
Stiffness and shaking Grand mal
Stiffness onlyTonic
Mistaken for syncopal episodesAtonic
TonicGeneralized seizure
Atonic Generalized seizure
Persists for > 5 minutesStatus epilepticus
Recurring seizures w/o regaining consciousness btwn seizuresStatus epilepticus
Autosomal dominant - TSC1 or TSC2Tuberous sclerosis
Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivityTuberous sclerosis
TSC1hamartin protein
TSC2tuberin protein
Seizures, intellectual disability, angiofibromasTuberous sclerosis
Ash leaf spots, retinal hamartomasTuberous sclerosis
Assctd w renal angiomyolipoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma, astrocytomaTuberous sclerosis
Port wine stain in opthalmic division of CN V Sturge-Weber Syndrome
Seizures, hemiparesis, glaucoma, intellectual disability Sturge-Weber Syndrome