Nervous Tissue

juliaterese's version from 2015-04-13 16:31

Section 1

Question Answer
components of CNSbrain and spinal cord
components of PNScranial and spinal nerves
location from where spinal nerves emergespinal cord
location from where cranial nerves emergebrain
bodies main integrating and control systemsendocrine, nervous
study of normal functioning and disorders of the nervous systemneurology

Section 2

Question Answer
small masses of nervous tissue located outside the brain and spinal cordganglia
what ganglia are made of neuron cell bodies
nervous system of the gutenteric plexuses
network of nerves that helps digestion enteric plexuses
monitor changes in the internal and external environmentsensory receptors

Section 3

Question Answer
sensory components of the PNS: SNSsomatic/special sensory receptors, somatic neurons
sensory components of the PNS: ANSautonomic sensory receptors and autonomic sensory neurons
sensory components of the PNS: ENSenteric sensory receptors and enteric sensory neurons of the enteric plexuses of the GI tract
motor components of the PNS: SNSsomatic motor neurons (voluntary)
motor components of the PNS: ANSautonomic motor neurons (involuntary): sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
motor components of the PNS: ENSenteric motor neurons (involuntary) in enteric plexuses of GI tract
effectors of the SNSskeletal muscles
effectors of the ANSsmooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
effectors of the ENSsmooth muscle, glands, cells of GI tract
efferentmotor neurons
afferentsensory neurons

Section 4

Question Answer
neural cells with sensory functionsensory receptors
where sensory detectors can detect stimuliinternally or externally
neural cells with integrative functioninterneurons
function of interneuronsinterpret information
neural cells with motor functionmotor/efferent neurons
convey information from sensory receptorssensory neurons
convey information from CNS to skeletal musclessomatic motor neurons
convey information from visceral organsautonomic (visceral) sensory neurons
convey information from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glandsautonomic motor neurons
two motor branches of the ANSsympathetic, parasympathetic
neurons that increase heart rate (sympathetic motor
neurons responsible for fight or flightsympathetic motor
neurons that slow down heart rateparasympathetic motor
neurons responsible for rest and digestparasympathetic motor

Section 5

Question Answer
called the brain of the gutenteric nervous system
part of nervous system that includes ENSPNS
number of neurons in the GI tract that are part of ENSover 100 million

Section 6

Question Answer
can neurons undergo mitotic division?no
two types of cells that makeup nervous tissueneurons, neurolgia
is nervous tissue vascularized?yes
can neuralgia undergo mitotic division?yes
are neuroglia smaller or larger than neurons?smaller
what does your body have more of: neurons or neuroglianeuroglia
speed of a nerve impulse0.5 to 130 m/s (1 to 280mph)
varying strengths of a nerve impulsenone

Section 7

Question Answer
part of a neuron that contains the nucleuscell body
part of a neuron responsible for protein synthesisnissl bodies
pigment in a neuronlipofuscin
part of a neuron that receives inputsdendrites
part of a neuron that carries impulses to another neuronaxon
part of a neuron that connects cell body and axonaxon hillock
part of a neuron where action potential beginstrigger zone
part of a neuron that is filled with neurotransmitterssynaptic end bulb

Section 8

Question Answer
part of an axon where action potential is generatedtrigger zone
cytoplasm of an axonaxoplasm
plasma membrane that surrounds axoplasmaxolemma
another name for the axon terminaltelodendria
what axons are supposed to be covered in to transmit the impulse at a higher speedmyelin sheath
protects the axon and aids in repairmyelin sheath
disease where plaque builds up and prevents conduction of impulse down myelin sheathmultiple sclerosis

Section 9

Question Answer
site of communication between two neuronssynapse
carries impulse toward the synapsepresynaptic neuron
carries impulse away from synapsepost synaptic neuron
2 cells that can be postsynapticeffector, neuron
point of connection between the postsynaptic and effector glandNMJ
excites or inhibits postsynaptic neurons or effectorsneurotransmitter
neurotransmitter found in the NMJAChe

Section 10

Question Answer
range of cell body sizes6um to 135um
how neurons are classified structurallyaccording to number of processes extending from cell body
neurons with several dendrites and on axon multipolar
most common structural classification of neurons in human bodymultipolar
neuron with one dendrite and one axonbipolar
where bipolar neurons are foundretinas, inner ear
neuron with one processess extending from cell bodyunipolar
type of neuron that is usually unipolarsensory(hearing, smell, taste)

Section 11

Question Answer
nerve cells that do not propagate or generate impulsesneuralgia
neuroglia cells whose processes make contact with blood, capillaries, neurons and pia materasterocytes
2 types of asterocytesprotoplasmic, fibrous
asterocytes that are found in gray matterprotoplasmic
asterocytes located mainly in white matterfibrous
6 functions of astrocytesblood-brain barrier, strength (support neurons), endothelial permeability, secrete chemicals that promote embryonic growth, maintain chemical environment for the generation of nerve impulses, learning and memory (influence formation of synapses)
neuraglia that are responsible for forming myelin sheatholigodendrocytes
most common glial cellsoligodendrocytes
analagous to Schwann cells but functions in a different placeoligodendrocytes
glial cells that function as phagocytes and remove cellular debris, microbes, damaged tissuemicroglia
where microglia are typically foundnear blood vessels
glial cells that are derived from the same progenitors as macrophagesmicroglial
glial cells that line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of spinal cordependymal
glial cells that produce, monitor and assist in circulation of cerebrospinal fluidependymal
glial cells that form part of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrierependymal
4 glial cells types that are found in CNSasterocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, epindymal
2 glial cells found in the PNSSchwann, satellite
functions of Schwann cellsencircle PNS axons, forms myelin sheath around axons, axon regeneration
where axon regeneration is more easily accomplishedPNS
function of satellite cellssurround cell bodies of neurons of PNS ganglia, regulate exchange of materials between neuronal cell bodies and interstitial fluid

Section 12

Question Answer
multilayered lipid and protein covering that surround axonsmyelin sheath
produce myelin sheaths in PNSSchwann cells
produce myelin sheaths in CNSoligodendrocytes
aggregations of myelinated and unmyelinated axons of many neurons that provides impulses for afferent and efferent cellswhite matter
contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals and neuragliagray matter
"matter" that receives and integrates sensory and motor informationgray matter
"matter" that has no myelinated axonsgray matter
"matter" that provides the pathway for afferent and efferent neuronswhite
"matter" that receives and processes informationgray

Section 13

Question Answer
presynaptic neuron stimulates a single postsynaptic neuron, the 2nd stimulates another and so onsimple series circuit
nerve impulses from one cell cause stimulation in many cells along the circuitdiverging circuit
one cell is stimulated by many othersconverging circuit
example of converging circuitall the different types of cells causing one type of cell to induce vomitting
impulses are received from later cells that repeatedly stimulate early cellsreverberating circuit
example of a reverberating circuitbreathing
example of a diverging circuitchanging the amount of weight your lifting (?)
one single cell stimulates a group that all commonly stimulates postsynaptic cells parallel after-discharge circuit
example of a parallel after-discharge circuitsolving complex problems

Section 14

Question Answer
the abilitu for the nervous system to change based on experienceplasticity
example of plasticity adjusting to a cold pool
neurons limited capacity to regenerate/repair themselvesregeneration
regeneration of new neuronsneurogenesis
only place where regeneration can take placehippocampus
cells that aid in neurogenesisstem cells