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Nervous System

zunair's version from 2018-06-08 23:30

Section 1

Question Answer
What does "Soma" mean Body
Sensory/Afferent divisionNerve fibers (axons) conveying impulses to the central nervous system
Motor/Efferent division Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs, which are muscles and glands to contract and glands to secrete
Central Nervous SystemBrain/Spinal Cord
Does the sensory/afferent division have any terms under it? If so label themNo
Does the Motor/efficient division have any terms under it? If so label themYes, Somatic and Autonomic nervous system
What terms are under Autonomic nervous systemSympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
Somatic Nervous system Conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles, referred as the "Voluntary" nervous system
Autonomic Nervous systemConsist of visceral motor fibers regulate activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands. known as the involuntary nervous system

Section 2

Question Answer
sympathetic divisionMobilize body systems during activity
parasympathetic divisionconserve energy, promote house keeping functions during rest
What is a SynapseThe gap between neurons when sending information from one neuron to another.
What builds myelin sheaths in the CNSOligodendrocytes
What builds myelin sheaths in the PNSSchwann cells
Characteristics for Neurons/nerve cellsConduct messages in the form of nerve impulses, extreme longevity, high metabolic rate and require lots of oxygen/glucose
Gangliacluster of cell bodies in the PNS
NucleiCluster of cell bodies in the CNS
What is the cell body for neutronsArea outside of the nucleus and in between the dendrites and nucleus and is the biosynthetic center.


Question Answer
What are Neuron processes in the CNS calledTracts
What are Neuron processes in the PNS calledNerves
How does an axon conduct a signal?Nerve impulse generated and conducted along the axon to the axon terminals, the axon terminal causes neurotransmitters signaling chemicals store in vesicles there to release in the extracellular space
anterograde movementmovement toward axon terminals
retrograde movementmovement toward cell body
Grey matterMostly nerve cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
White MatterDense collections of myelinated fibers
what are the different type of fibers from neurons, connective tissue and muscle fibers?Neuron fibers are long axons, connective tissue fibers are specialized proteins that provide support and muscle fibres are muscle cells
Multi polar neurons3 or more processes, one axon and rest dendrites
Bipolar neurons2 processes, axon and dendrite
Unipolar neuronsonly axons


Question Answer
Sensory/Afferent neurons type of neuronMost are unipolar
Motor/Efferent neurons type of neuronMultipolar
Interneurons/association neuronsLie between motor/sensory neurons in neural pathways and shuttle signals through CNS pathways where integration occurs. Most multipolar
What does potassium do for nervesits movement in the membrane potential causes nerve impulses
What are rough endoplasmic reticulum called in NeuronsNissl Bodies
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum functionMake proteins
Smooth endoplasmic reticulumMake cellular products like lipids/hormones


Question Answer
Ligand/Chemical gated channelsrespond to chemical stimulus, eg neurotransmitters, hormones, etc
Voltage Gated channelsOpen and close in response to changes in the voltage/membrane potential
Voltagemeasure of potential energy generated by seperated charge
currentFlow of electrical charge (ions) between 2 points
InsulatorSubstance with high electrical resistance (Myelin sheaths)
ConductorSubstance with low electrical resistance


Question Answer
Resting membrane potentialPotential difference across the membrane of a resting cell
What ions does the ECF containNa+ and Cl- ions
Cytosol contains what ionsK+ and phosphate
RMP is what charge-70
Positive charge whereECF
Negative charge whereCytosol
Changes in membrane potential are whatSignals
Depolarizationreduction in membrane potential (closer to zero)
Hyperpolarizationincrease in membrane potential (further from zero)
What does depolarization doinside of membrane potential less negative than Resting potential and increase chance of producing a nerve impulse
what does hyper polarization doinside of membrane more negative than resting potential and decreases chance of a nerve impulse
threshold stimulusminimal stimulus that intiates an action potential

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