Nervous system

kshinsky's version from 2017-07-31 20:11


Question Answer
neuronsnot mitotic, send and receive signals
neurogliaglial cells
neruoglia functionshighly mitotic, support and protect neurons, carry nutrients
cnsbrain and spinal cord
pnsspinal nerves and cranial nerves
cns functionreceives sensory information from sensory receptors
pns functiondeliver sensory information back to cns, carry motor commands to pns and tissues
nerves in pnscollection of axons, spinal nerves, cranial nerves
afferent divisionsensory information, carries from receptors back to cns
efferent divisionmotor commands, cns to pns muscle and glands
receptorsdetect change or respond to stimuli, response to change in environment
effectorsmuscle fibers or glandular cells
types of effectorssomatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system
somatic nervous systemcontrols voluntary and involuntary skeletal muscle contraction
autonomic nervous systemcontractions of cardiac, smooth, or glandular secretion
sympathetic dvisionincrease heart rate in stress situations
parasympathetic divisionlowers cardiac rate, lower blood pressure, bronchoconstricts, lowers digestive activity
multipolar neuronscell body, dendrite, axon
neuron cell bodylarge nucleus, perikaryon, mitochondria, rough er
mitochondriaproduce atp
rough erproduce neurotransmitters
cytoskeletonneurofilaments and neurotubules in place of microfilaments and microtubules, nissel bodies
dendritescarry impulses towards cell body, receives impulses
axonlong, nerve is a bundle of axons, carries action potential away from body
action potential negative charge
teleodendriafine divisions
end of telodendriasynaptic end bulbs
synaptic end bulbsreleases neurotransmitter
neurofilamentscytoskeletal structures of the neuron
synapsearea of communication with another cell
presynaptic cellneuron sends message
postsynaptic cellcell that receives message
synaptic cleftmembrane between the pre and post synaptic cells
synaptic terminalcontains synaptic vesicles of neurotransmitters
neurotransmitterschemical messengers, released by presynaptic membrane, affect receptors of post synaptic cells, broken down by enzymes
neurotransmitter junctionsynapase between neuron and muscle
neuroglandular junctionsynapse between neuron and gland
sensory neuronsafferent neurons of pns
motor neuronsefferent neurons of pns
interneuronsassociation neurons, vast majority of neurons in the body
interoceptersmonitor internal systems, ex: digestive, cardiovascular, taste, pain, pressure)
exteroceptorsexternal sense (touch and temp) distance senses (sight, smell, hearing)
proprioceptorsmonitor position and movement (ex: skeletal muscle and joints)
where are interneurons foundbrain, spinal cord, and autonomic ganglia
4 types of neuroglia in cnsependymal, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia
ependymal cellsproduce cerebral spinal fluid
astrocytescreate physical defense to brain, produce blood brain barrier
oligodendrocytesproduce myelin
microgliaproduce phagosidic cells
myelinationincreases the speed of action potential
myelininsulated myelinated axons
white mattermyelinated
grey matterunmyelinated
types of neuroglia in pnsganglia, satelitte cells, schwann cells
gangliacollection of nerve cell bodies
satelitte cellsamphicytes, surround the ganglia
schwann cellsform myelination

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