Create
Learn
Share

Nervous System

rename
abisnail's version from 2017-05-22 21:35

Section

Question Answer
Name the components of the central nervous systemBrain and spinal cord
Name the parts of the telencephalonCerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles
Name the parts of the diencephalonThalamus and third ventricle
Name the parts of the mesencephalonMidbrain and cerebral aqueduct
Name the parts of the metencephalonPons, cerebellum and fourth ventricle
Name the parts of the myelencephalonMedulla, Medulla oblongata and 4th ventricle
memorize

Section

Question Answer
How does the peripheral nervous system connect to the central nervous system?By cranial and spinal nerves
Which two nervous systems compile the peripheral nervous system?Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Which part of the peripheral nervous system handles voluntary functions?Somatic NS
Which part of the peripheral nervous system handles involuntary functions?Autonomic NS
What does the somatic NS do?Sends sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) information to skeletal muscles
What does the autonomic NS do?Innervates organs, glands and blood vessels
Describe the two neuron chain associated with the autonomic nervous systemThe 1st preganglionic neuron has it's cell body in the CNS and the 2nd neuron (in the ganglia) is in the PNS
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What does the autonomic nervous system do?Carries afferent information regarding visceral function and efferent instructions regarding function, it also regulates arousal and body functions
What does the sympathetic branch of the ANS do?Expends energy for the fight/flight reflex.
What does the parasympathetic branch of the ANS do?Conserve energy
From top to bottom, name the spinal cord regionsBrainstem, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What are the meninges?3 skin layers of connective tissue covering the CNS
What do the meninges do?Separate the CNS and PNS and provide protection by limiting movement
What is the dura materThe outer 2 layer(s) of meninges enclosing sinuses (spaces) for venous drainage and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reabsorption
Describe the outer layer of dura materFound in the PNS and CNS, a fibroelastic, loosely interdigitating cells, with extracellular space and no extracellular collagen
Describe the inner layer of dura materFound only in the CNS, dense, fibrous, flattened cells on the inner surface that are possibly impermeable to fluid
Where is the falx cerebri?Descends vertically in the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres
Where is the falx cerebelli?In the posterior cerebellar notch and the vallecula of the cerebellum between the two cerebellar hemispheres
Where is the tentorium cerebelli?Separating the cerebellum from the inferior occipital lobes
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What is the arachnoid mater?The middle later of fibrous elastic tissue with flattened cells on the inner surface
The arachnoid mater functions as aBridge over the sulci and fissures/gyri
Where are the arachnoid villi?Projected into venous sinuses in the dura mater
What is in the subarachnoid space?Cerebrospinal fluid
What is the pia mater?The inner layer of delicate fibrous tissue with flattened cells on the outer surface
Does the pia mater adhere to cortical tissue?Yes
memorize

Section

Question Answer
Which lobes make up the telencephalon?Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital
Name the fissure that separate the L and R hemispheresLongitudinal fissure
Where is the falx cerebri located?Longitudinal fissure
Name the sulcus that separates the frontal and parietal lobesCentral sulcus
Name the structure(s) that separate the temporal lobe from the frontal/parietalLateral sulcus/Sylvian fissure
Name the sulcus that separates the parietal and occipital lobesParietal-occipital sulcus
memorize

Section

Question Answer
Is the pre central gyrus a motor of cognitive gyri?Motor
Is the orbital gyrus a motor of cognitive gyri?Cognitive
Is the inferior frontal gyrus a motor of cognitive gyri?Motor
Is the middle frontal gyrus a motor of cognitive gyri?Motor
Is the superior frontal gyrus a motor of cognitive gyri?Cognitive
Is Broca's area a motor of cognitive gyri?Motor
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What are the post central gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus involved in?Reception and integration
Which gyrus is the most involved in reception?Post central gyrus
Which gyrus is the most involved in integration?Angular gyrus
Where is the post central gyrus?By the post central sulcus
Where is the supra marginal gyrus?Above the angular gyrus
Where is the angular gyrus?On the angle between the parietal and temporal lobes
What is the superior temporal gyrus and Heschl's gyrus involved in?Audition and language comprehension
Which gyrus is Wernicke's area?Superior temporal gyrus
Where is Wernicke's area?At the top of the Sylvian fissure
What is the superior temporal gyrus?Next the the Sylvian fissure
Where is Heschl's gyrus?Where Wernicke's area is located
Which gyrus is the auditory cortex?Herschl's gyrus
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What is the limbic system involved in?Emotion and memory
What is the striatum?The putamen and caudate nucleus on the outer surface of the basal ganglia
Where is the globus pallidus?Close to the thalamus on the inner surface of the basal ganglia
Where is the hippocampus?The medial side of the temporal lobe on the inner surface of the basal ganglia
Where is the amygdala?At the end of the striatum on the outer surface of the basal ganglia
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What are commissural fibre tracts?Fibres that connect the hemispheres horizontally
What is the corpus collosum?A large arc of fibre tract connecting between the hemispheres
What are projection fibre tracts?Fibre tracts that run vertically, connecting the higher CNS to the lower PNS
Where do the projection fibre tracts travel?Through the internal capsule
What do the association fibre tracts do?Connect areas within hemispheres
What is the arcuate fasciculus?A fibre tract that connects the frontal and temporal speech/language centres
What would a lesion at the arcuate fasiculus cause?Conduction aphasia
memorize

Section

Question Answer
Describe the thalamusThe thalamus has two halves connected by the inter thalamic adhesions
Name the nuclei of the thalamusAnterior, ventrolateral, ventroposterior medial
Name the geniculate nucleiLateral (visual) and medial (auditory) geniculate nuclei
What is the thalamus involved in?Consciousness, sleep and wakefulness
Describe the information transfer that the thalamus is involved inReceives and integrates sensory information and sends out motor information
Where is the hypothalamus in relation to the thalamus?Anterior and ventral to the thalamus
What does the hypothalamus do?Connects to pituitary by infundibulum and influences endocrine function
Where is the epithalamus in relation to the thalamus?Superior and posterior to the thalamus
memorize

Section

Question Answer
Where are the superior and inferior colliculi of the midbrain?On the dorsal surface
What are the superior and inferior colliculi involved in?Hearer and vision
What are the cerebral peduncles of the midbrain?Where the fibres meet up
What are the cerebral peduncles involved in?Motor action
Where is the cerebral aqueduct?Between the 3rd and 4th ventricles
What does the pons do?Connects the thalamus to the medulla, it is a link to the cerebellum
The pons has a role inREM sleep
Which ventricle is at the level of the pons?The 4th ventricle
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What are the two hemispheres of the cerebellum separated by?The vermis
What structure of the cerebellum is involved in receiving afferent information from the vestibular system?The flocculonodular lobes on the underneath
The cerebellum mainly _________ informationReceives
Which part of the brainstem connects to the spinal cord?Medulla oblongata
Several CN in the medulla oblongata are related toSpeech, hearing and swallowing
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What is the ventricular system derived from?Neural tube
What is the ventricular system filled with?Cerebrospinal fluids
The fourth ventricle has openings to theSubarachnoid space
How is CSF absorbed back into the blood stream?Via sinuses in the dura mater
How are the 3rd and 4th ventricles connected?Cerebral aqueduct
memorize

Section

Question Answer
Describe the position of the spinal cordFrom the foramen magnum, down the vertebral canal to the first lumbar vertebra, to become a collection of spinal nerves
What is the caudal equina?The collection of spinal nerves at the end of the spinal cord
What are the dorsal and ventral horns involved in?Peripheral innervation
Are there tracts specific to sensations and movements?Yes
How does the spinal cord get oxygen and glucose?Blood
How does the spinal cord get nutrients and cushioning?CSF
Why is the circle of Willis necessary?For survival because a blockage on one side is fixed by blood being fed on the rest
How is the circle of Willis involved in blockage removal?There is a dual blood supply
Where is the circle of Willis?On the ventral aspect of the brain, above the midbrain
What does the circle of Willis do?Compensates for blockage below the circle of Willis
Which arteries supply the speech, language and hearing areas of the brain?Middle cerebral arteries
Which arteries supply the midbrain?Posterior cerebral arteries
Which artery supplies the brainstem and inner ear?Basilar artery
Which arteries supply the spinal cord?Anterior and two posterior spinal arteries
memorize

Section

Question Answer
Which neurones are lower motor neurones?Neurones of cranial and spinal nerves
Where do the lower motor neurones start?Brainstem and spinal cord
Which motor neurones feed out to the peripheral muscles?Lower motor neurones
How do the lower motor neurones connect to the brain?They travel down the spinal cord connecting the brain to the lower motor neurones
Where do upper motor neurones decussate?In the pyramidal section of the medulla, resulting in contralateral control
What is spastic paralysis?Tight muscles
Which motor neurones are damaged causing spastic paralysis?Upper motor neurones
What is flaccid paralysis?Floppiness, not a lot of muscle tone
Which motor neurones are damaged causing flaccid paralysis?Lower motor neurones
memorize

Section

Question Answer
What is CN I called?Olfactory Nerve
What type of nerve is CN I?Sensory
What is CN I involved in?Smell
What is CN II called?Optic Nerve
What type of nerve is CN II?Sensory
What is CN II involved in?Eyes
What is CN III called?Occulomotor Nerve
What type of nerve is CN III?Motor, ANS
What is CN III involved in?Eye movement and eyelid elevation
What is CN IV called?Trochlear Nerve
What type of nerve is CN IV?Motor
What is CN IV involved in?Vision
memorize

 

Question Answer
What is CN V called?Trigeminal Nerve
What type of nerve is CN V?Motor, Sensory
Where does CN V arise from?The pons
How many branches does CN V have?3
Name the three branches of CN VOphthalmic, maxillary, mandibular
What is the ophthalmic branch of CN V involved in?Sensory information from the forehead, eye and nasal cavity
What is the maxillary branch of CN V involved in?Sensory information from the lip, nose, cheek, hard palate, teeth and jaw
What is the sensory mandibular branch of CN V involved in?Lip, chin, cheek, exterior ear, teeth, jaw, mouth, temperature of the tongue, proprioception from facial and lingual muscles
What is the motor mandibular branch of CN V involved in?Jaw movement and mastication, tensor veil palatine, tensor tympani
What does the tensor veil palatine do?Tenses and raises the soft palate
What does the tensor tympani do?Tightens the tympanic membrane
What is proprioception?Knowing where something is in space - direction and space
memorize

 

Question Answer
What is CN VI called?Abducens Nerve
What type of nerve is CN VI?Motor
What is CN VI involved in?Vision
What is CN VII called?Facial Nerve
What type of nerve is CN VII?Motor, sensory, ANS
Where does CN VII arise from?Pons-medulla junction
What does the sensory information of CN VII come from? Taste of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
What does the motor information of CN VII go to?Lip, lower face (unilateral), eyelid depressors, stapedius
What is the parasympathetic function of CN VII?Saliva production
memorize

 

Question Answer
What is CN VIII called?Vestibulocochlear nerve
What type of nerve is CN VIII?Sensory
What is CN VIII involved in?Balance and hearing
Where does CN VIII arise from?Pons-medulla junction
How is CN VIII involved in audition?Hair cells in the spiral ganglion in the internal auditory canal, the information is transmitted to the cochlear nucleus where information decussates via the trapezoid body. From there, the information is transmitted to the superior olivary complex, then the lateral lemniscus, the inferior colliculus and the medial geniculate body and finally the cortex.
How is CN VIII involved in the vestibular system?Hair cells in the semicircular canals, saccule and utricle
What is the purpose of the vestibular?It determine's position and movement of the head in space
How many vestibular nuclei are there?8
Which CN's does CN VIII synapse with for eye movement?CN III, IV and VI
What does CN VIII synapse with for balance and posture?Extensor and antigravity muscles
What allows the realisation of position in space?3 semicircular canals at right angles
What is CN IX called?Glossopharyngeal nerve
What type of nerve is CN IX?Motor, sensory and ANS
Where does the sensory information of CN IX come from?Pharynx and posterior 1/3 of the tongue
Where does the motor information of CN IX go to?Pharyngeal and lingual muscles
memorize

 

Question Answer
Which glands are stimulated by CN IX?Saliva
What is CN X called?Vagus nerve
What type of nerve is CN X?Motor, sensory and ANS
Where does the sensory information of CN X come from?Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, oesophagus, stomach
Where does the motor information of CN X go to?Intrinsic muscles of larynx, all but one of the pharynx and velum respectively
Where does the parasympathetic information of CN X go to?Glands, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle of blood vessels, trachea, bronchi, oesophagus, stomach, intestines
Where does the motor information of the pharyngeal branch of CN X go to?Velar and pharyngeal constrictor
What is CN XI called?Spinal accessory nerve
What type of nerve is CN XI?Motor
What does CN XI do?Assists the vagus nerve
Where does the motor information of CN XI go?Velum, pharynx and larynx, neck and shoulders
What is CN XII called?Hypoglossal nerve
What type of nerve is CN XII?Motor
Where does the motor information of CN XII go?Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue, some extrinsic laryngeal muscles
memorize