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Nerve transmission in the spinal cord

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mwhyett's version from 2017-05-06 15:11

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Question Answer
How long is the spinal cord in an adult?45cm.
How thick is the spinal cord?The same thickness as your little finger.
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?31.
What is the spinal cord surrounded by?Meninges and cerebrospinal fluid.
Where does the spinal cord start from?The atlas (C1).
Where does the spinal cord end?L1.
What is the spinal cord a continuation of?The medulla oblongata.
What does the centre of the spinal cord contain?Grey matter in an H-shape.
What is the long part of the H-shape grey matter called?The transverse commissure.
What is the transverse commissure?A collection of nerve fibres that connect the two sides of grey matter.
What is found in the centre of the spinal cord?The transverse commissure and the central canal.
What is the central canal a continuation of?The fourth ventricle.
What does the central canal contain?Cerebrospinal fluid
Where is the central canal?In the centre of the spinal cord.
What does the spinal cord do?Transmits impulses between the brain and effector muscles within the body.
For motor nerve transmission, in which direction do the impulses travel?Away from the brain.
For sensory nerve transmission, in which direction do the impulses travel?Towards the brain.
What are the posterior horns of the spinal cord composed of?Cell bodies that are stimulated by sensory impulses.
What are the anterior horns of the spinal cord composed of?Motor neurone cell bodies that are stimulated by motor neurones higher up in the brain.
What do connector neurones do?Connect the anterior and posterior horns of the spinal cord, and create a reflex arc
What do sensory neurones do?Receive impulses from the periphery of the body, and transmit impulses to the brain.
What do lower motor neurones do?Receive impulses from the brain and spinal cord and transmit impulses to the skeletal muscles.
How many types of spinal cord nerve cells are there?3
What are the 3 types of spinal cord nerve cells?Sensory neurones, lower motor neurones, and connector neurones.
What is the white matter of the spinal cord arranged into?The anterior, posterior, and lateral columns.
What does the white matter of the spinal cord consist of?Sensory nerve fibres that ascend to the brain, motor nerve fibres that descend from the brain, and connecter neurone fibres.
What are the two sources of sensory nerve impulses?Receptors in the skin, and receptors in the tendons/muscles/joints.
What are proprioreceptors?Receptors that relay information about body position and muscle tension.
Where are proprioreceptors found?In tendons, muscles, joints, and the inner ear.
What two types of movement does stimulation of motor neurones result in?Voluntary and involuntary movement.
Name an example of a voluntary movement.Contraction of skeletal muscle.
Name 3 examples of involuntary movement.Contraction of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and secretion of glands.
What is involuntary movement controlled by?The autonomic nervous system.
Where do spinal reflexes take place?In the spinal cord.
What makes up a spinal arc reflex?A sensory neurone, a connector neurone, and a motor neurone.
What is the purpose of a spinal reflex?To provide an immediate motor response.
What is a spinal reflex also known as?A withdrawal reflex.
What is the greater purpose of a withdrawal reflex?To protect the body from harm.
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