NBE Pathology Glossary

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Section 1

Question Answer
AbcessLocalized accumulation of pus
AcquiredPresents itself at birth
AcromegalyHyperfunction of pituitary gland after ossification has been completed
AcuteA disease with a more or less rapid onset and short duration
AllergiesHaving a hypersensitivity to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction

Section 2

Question Answer
AmeliaCongenital absence of one or more limbs
AnasarcaGeneralized massive edema in subcutaneous tissue
AnemiaDecrease in the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin or both
AneurysmLocalized dilation of a blood vessel
AplasiaFailure of a tissue or an organ to develop normally

Section 3

Question Answer
Arteriosclerosisdisease of the arteries resulting in the thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
AtrophyA wasting, decrease in size of an organ tissue
AscitiesAccumulation of free serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
AtherosclerosisA form of arteriosclerosis marked by deposition of lipids in the inner layer of arterial walls
AutopsyPostmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition

Section 4

Question Answer
CachexiaA general state of ill health, associated with emaciation
CarbuncleSeveral communicating boils of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the production and discharge of pus and dead tissue
CavitationFormation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis
ChronicA disease with a more or less slow onset and long duration
Cleft PlateCongenitally malformed palate with a fissure along the midline

Section 5

Question Answer
Clinical PathologyStudy of a disease by means of body secretions, excretions, and other body fluids performed in the laboratory in the diagnosis of a disease
CommunicableA disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another
ComplicationAn unfavorable condition arising during the course of a disease
ConcussionThe immediate and temporary disturbance of brain function
CongenitalExisting at the time of birth, or shortly thereafter

Section 6

Question Answer
CongestionAccumulation of an excess of blood or tissue in a body part
ContusionA bruise often accompanied with swelling
CretinismA congenital condition due to hypothyroidism resulting in mental retardation
Cryptochorism/ChryptorchidismCondition in which the descent of a testis into the scrotum is arrested at some point in the normal path
CyanosisA bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membrane sue to lack of oxygen

Section 7

Question Answer
CystA sac within or on the body surface containing air or fluid
DeficiencyDisease due to lack of dietary or metabolic substance
DegenerationThe deterioration of tissues with corresponding functional impairment as a result of diseases or injury
DehydrationLoss of moisture from body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem
DiagnosisThe term denoting the naming of the disease or syndrome; to recognize the nature of a disease

Section 8

Question Answer
DilationThe condition of the heart being enlarged, occurring normally, artificially, or as a result of a disease
Dry GangreneCondition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remians aseptic and occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed (ischemic necrosis)
DysplasiaAbnormal development of tissue
EcchymosisSmall, non elevated hemorrhagic patch; extravasation of blood into tissue
Ecoptic Pregnancy The implantation of the fertilized ovum in a site other than the normal one in the uterine cavity

Section 9

Question Answer
Edema/DropsyAbnormal accumulation of fluids in tissue or body cavities
EmaciationExcessive wasting away of the body
EmbolismFree floating object in the bloodstream
EmpyemaPus in the pleural cavity
EndemicA disease that is continuously present in a community

Section 10

Question Answer
EpidemicA disease that is currently in higher than normal numbers
EpilepsyA chronic neurogenic disease marked by sudden alteration in consciousness and frequently by conversions
Epistaxisbleeding from the nose
EtiologyThe study of the cause of diseases
ExacerbationIncrease in severity of disease

Section 11

Question Answer
ExsanguinationLoss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained
ExudateFluid or cellular debris exuding from blood vessels and deposited in tissues or tissue surfaces; usually a result of inflammation
FebrilePertaining or characterized by fever
FulminatingHaving a rapid or severe onset, usually fatal
Functional A condition or disease in which there is no recognizable changes in anatomy

Section 12

Question Answer
FuruncleAn abcess or pyogenic infection of a sweat gland or hair follice
General PathologyDeals with the study of the widespread process of disease such as inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, or cellular death, repair, etc. without reference to particular organs or organ systems
GoiterEnlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency
Gross PathologyStudy of changes in structure of the body that are readily seen with the unaided eye as a result of a disease
HematemesisVomiting of blood

Section 13

Question Answer
HematomaTumor like swelling of blood
HematuriaDischarge of red blood cells in urine
HemophiliaInherited hemorrhagic disease characterized by a tendency to excessive and sometimes spontaneous bleeding
HemoptysisBlood in sputum
HemorrhageEscape of blood in blood vascular system

Section 14

Question Answer
HereditaryGenetic charcteristics transmitted from parents to offspring
HerniaAbnormal protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening in the wall that normally contain his
HydroceleAbnormal collection of fluid in any sacculated cavity in the body
HydrocephalusExcessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of brains
HydronephrosisDistension of the pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys with urine as a result of obstruction

Section 15

Question Answer
HydropericardiumAbnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac
HydrothoraxAbnormal accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity
HyperemiaExcess of blood in an area of the body
HyperplasiaThe increase in size of an organ or part due to the excessive but regulated increase in the number of its cells
HypertrophyThe enlargement of an organ or part due to the increase in size of cells composing it
HypoplasiaUnderdevelopment of a tissue, organ or the body

Section 16

Question Answer
IatrogenicResults from the adverse activity if medical personnel
IdiopathicOf an unknown cause
InfarctionThe formation of na area of necrosis in a tissue caused by obstruction in the artery supplying the area
InfectionThe state or condition in which the body or part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects
InfestationThe harboring of animal parasites, especially macroscopic forms such as ticks or mosquitos

Section 17

Question Answer
InfiltrationThe process of seepage or diffusion into the tissue of substances that are not ordinarily present
InflammationA tissue reaction to irritation, ifection, or injury marked by localized heat, swelling, redness, pain and sometimes loss of functions
IntoxicationState of being intoxicated, especially of being poisoned by a drug or toxic substance
Intracranial HemorrhageExtravision of blood within the skull
ischemiaReduction in arterial blood supply

Section 18

Question Answer
JaundiceCondition by excessive concentration of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deopsition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with resulting yellow appearance
LesionSpecific pathologic structural and functional changes or both brought about by disease
LeukemiaDisease charcterized by appearance of great numbers of immature and abnormal white blood cells
LeucocytosisIncrease in the number of white blood cells
LeucopeniaAbnormal reduction in the number of white blood cells

Section 19

Question Answer
LymphomaMalignancy of lymphoid tissue
Malformationa defect or deformity
Medicolegal/Forensic PathologyStudy of disease to ascertain cause and manner of death
MelenaBlood in stool
MetaplasiaReplacement of one type of tissue into a form that is not normally found there

Section 20

Question Answer
MetastasisTrasnfer of disease from its primary site to a distant location
Micorscopic PathologyStudy of microscopic changes that cells, tissues, and organs undergo as a result of disease
Moist GangreneNecrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage; may be accompanied by the invasion of saprophytic bacteria
Morbidity rateRelative incidence of a disease in the population or number of cases in a given time at a given population
Mortality rateNumber of deaths in a given time or place or proportion of deaths to a population

Section 21

Question Answer
NecrosisPathological death of a tissue still a part of the living organisms
Neoplasm/TumorThe abnormal, excessive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells with formation of a mass or new growth of tissue
NosocomialInfection acquired in the hospital
Occupational diseaseA disease with an abnormally high rate of occurrence in members of the workforce
OrganicCondition in which there is a change in anatomy

Section 22

Question Answer
OsteomalaciaDisease marked by softening of the bones
OsteomyelitisInflammation of the bone and bone marrow
OsteoperosisLoss of bone density
Pandemic Diseaseepidemic, wide spread even of worldwide event
Pathological anatomyStudy of structural changes in the body caused by disease

Section 23

Question Answer
PathogenesisManner in which a disease develops
PetechiaAntermortem, pinpoint,extra-vascular blood discoloration visible as purplish hemorrhages of the skin
PhocomeliaCongenital condition in which the proximal portion so the limbs are poorly developed or missing
Physiological PathologyStudy of changes in body functions due to disease
Pigmenttioncoloration caused by deposit, or lack of colored material in the tissues

Section 24

Question Answer
Pneumoconiosisgeneral term used to denote any prolonged inhalation of mineral dust
PneumoniaInfection of the lungs
PoliomyelitisHighly contagious infectious disease of the spinal cord caused by a filterable virus
Polycythemia veraIncrease in total red blood cell mass
PolypGrowth or mass of tissue that protrudes from a mucous membrane

Section 25

Question Answer
PrevalenceNumber of cases if disease present in a specified population at a given time
PrognosisPrediction of the outcome of the disease
ProstatitisInflammation of the prostate gland
PurpuraCondition when spontaneous bleeding occurs in the subcutaneous tissue, casuing appearance of purple patches
PustuleSmall elevation of skin containing pus

Section 26

Question Answer
RecurrentReappearance of symptoms after a period of remission
RegenerationReplacement of damaged cells within identical cells
RemissionTemp cessation of symptoms in a disease
Renal calculiKidney stones
RepairPhysical or mechanical restoration of damaged or diseased tissue by the growth of healthy new cells, not necessarily the same type

Section 27

Question Answer
ResolutionTermination of the inflammatory response with the affected part returning to its normal state
RicketsDisease of infants and young children caused by deficiency of vitamin D resulting in defective bone growth
SignsObjective disturbances produced by a disease (pulse, fever)
Special PathologyDeals with specific features of a disease in relation to particular organs/systems
Spina bfidaCongenital defect in which the vertebral column is absent or incomplete closure

Section 28

Question Answer
Sporadicdisease that occurs randomly
StenosisAbnormal constriction of a channel or orifice
Surgical pathologyStudy of tissue specimens excised surgically in a major/minor restoration
SymptomsWhat he patient feels
Syndromeset of signs or symptoms associated with a disease

Section 29

Question Answer
Thrombosisformation of presence of an attached blood clot
Tubal pregancyImplantation and development of the fertilized ovum in a uterine (fallopian) tube
UlcerOpen sore or lesion of skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of tissue
UremiaToxic condition when blood retains waste products excreted in urine
Valvular insufficiency/IncompetenceFailure of a heart valve to close tightly, allowing regurgitation of blood
VesicleBlister like elevation of skin containing serous fluid