Nbde 1

sellaturcica's version from 2017-07-31 19:25


Question Answer
Cholecystokininstimulates emptying of the gall bladder
Secretininhibits gastic acid secretion and stimulates bicarbonate secretion
Motilinstimulates upper GI motility
Gastic Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)slows stomach motility & inhibits gastric acid
Histaminestimulates gastric acid secretion
Bile SaltsAny surplus is stored in the gall bladder
Bile SaltsEmulsifies lipids
Bile Salts2 major types: glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid
Myopia (nearsightedness) characteristicsEyeball too longFocal point of far objects is focused in front of retinaCorrected by concave lenses
Hyperopia (farsightedness) characteristicsEyeball too shortFocal point of near objects is focused behind the retinaCorrected by convex lenses
Astigmatismoccurs when the curvature of the lens is not uniform.
Presbyopiais the loss of lens elasticity with age
CN Xmediates taste from the upper esophagus and epiglottis
Meissners corpusclelight touch mechanoreceptor
Pacinian corpusclevibration mechanoreceptor
Ruffini endingsconstant touch/pressure mechanoreceptor
Merkels discpressure/texture mechanoreceptor
Normal physiologic pH7.35-7.45
Normal pO275-100mmHg
Normal pCO235-45mmHg
Normal HCO322-28 mEq/L
Respiratory AcidosisIncrease in PCO2, decrease in pHCompensation - Kidneys reabsorb Bicarb (HCO3)
Metabolic AcidosisCaused by loss of bicarb or too many acids - Lactic acidosis, renal failure, ketones, ammonium intoxicationHCO3 decreases, pH decreasesCompensation - hyperventilation to eliminate CO2
Respiratory AlkalosisDecrease in PCO2, increase in pHCompensation - Kidneys excrete HCO3
Metabolic AlkalosisAcid (H+) lost from emesis, diuretics. Retention of HCO3 from medications, hyperaldosteronismIncrease in HCO3, Increase in pHCompensation - Respiratory centers are not stimulated, this leads to hypoventilation and CO2 retention