Nazi domestic policies 1933-39

tuwotixo's version from 2015-04-11 19:32


Question Answer
Features of Nazi policies for schools (5)- All schools came under Nazi control. All school books were rewritten and included Nazi ideas about hatred of the Jews and war. Boys and girls went to separate schools.// All teachers had to join the Nazi Teachers League. // The curriculum was changed. Subjects concentrated upon German history and nationalism. Girls were prevented from studying science and could only learn the mathematics necessary to be a housewife. // Pupils got much more PE; boxing was compulsory for boys; girls were taught to cook and care for the home.// Mein Kampf became a compulsory school text.j
Features of the Nazi Youth Movements (6)- Children joined at the age of five and stayed until eighteen. Membership was virtually compulsory. Boys joined the Pimpfen, then the German Youth and then the Hitler Youth. Girls joined the League of German Maidens. // Children took part in ‘fun’ activities, camping, sports, outings. These helped make the Youth movements popular at first. // They also had lectures about Nazi ideas, like racism. The boys did activities which prepared them for the army. // The meetings were in the evenings and at weekends. Girls found that they had little time for homework. This was to prevent them having a career. // Children were encouraged to spy on their parents and report what they did and said. // In 1933 30% of young people in Germany were in the Nazi Youth movements; by 1938 it was 82%.
Features of the Nazi Policies for Women (5)- During the 1920s, things were starting to look better for the women in Weimar Germany as they were given the right to vote and were often paid on equal basis to men. // Under Nazi rule women had to stay at home, produce more children and look after the family. This was for both racial reasons: (to produce more racially-pure Germans) and economic reasons: (to solve unemployment by removing women from the labour market) // There was a great deal of propaganda about the ideal German family. Photographs and posters showed the woman looking after the children and the man going out to work and protecting the wife.// Women were forced to give up work when they got married. They could not be civil servants, lawyers, judges or doctors. // Women’s roles can be summarised as three 'Ks': Kinder, Kirche, Kuche = Children, Church, Cooking.
Features of Nazi policies for Marriage and Childbirth (3)- Couples received a loan of 1,000 marks on getting married, worth 9 months wages as long as the wide left work. Less and less of this loan had to be paid back the more children you had.// The Mother’s Cross was an award given to women for the number of children they had. Bronze –4 Silver 6 Gold- 8+. These were give out each year on Hitler’’s mother’s birthday.// The Lebensborn programme. This encouraged single women to have children with SS men to make ‘genetically pure’ children with SS men. These women were given nursery and financial aid or were to put the children for adoption by worthy German families
Nazi Policies towards the unemployed (4)- Before the Nazis came to power, the National Labour Service had been started. This used government money to provide jobs for the unemployed: building bridges, roads, forests. // The Nazis took up and expanded these schemes. Hitler was especially keen on the building of the first motorways, Autobahns. // All men had to spend six months in the Labour Service from the age of eighteen. That is, after they left the Hitler Youth. Their wages were only about 50p per week, but everything was provided for them. // Much of the work was done by hand and not by machinery. This meant that there were more jobs.
Nazi Policies towards the workers (4)- The Labour Front took over the role of the banned trade unions and ordered that workers could not be sacked on the spot but he also decreed that a worker could not leave his job without government permission.// Workers had to pay membership dues to the Labour Front, which were deducted from their wages. // By 1939, the Labour Front had increased the number of weekly hours worked from 60 to 72 (including overtime). // Strikes were outlawed. However, the average factory worker was earning ten times more than those on dole money and there were few complaints.
Key features of the Beauty of Labour organisation (3)- Beauty of Labour was a section of the German Labour Front, which aimed to improve working conditions in factories. // It introduced features not seen in many workplaces before such as washing facilities and low-cost canteens. // It organised factory celebrations, folk dancing and political education. It existed alongside the similar Strength through Joy movement.
Key features of the Strength through Joy organisation (4)- The Nazi belief in controlling the lives of German workers extended to their leisure time. There was a long list of activities for workers to select from. They included theatre performances and concerts, hikes and sporting events. // Workers in the Third Reich averaged between 6 and 15 days paid holiday each year. Under Weimar, the figure was between 3 and 8 days. Also Cheap holidays organised by KdF was a sure way to win the support of many ordinary Germans. // The KdF also organised P.E. sessions and provided sports facilities in factories and workplaces. // In 1938, the KdF launched the Volkswagen (The People’s Car), designed by Ferdinand Porsche. It was priced at below 1,000 marks-repayable over 4 years. The VW would involve buyers in weekly instalments (plus insurance) of 6 marks per week. By November 1940, there were 300,000 potential purchasers but no cars were produced – only a few show models. No one received a car.
Changes in German standards of living 1933-39 (Good) (3)- Employment increased and wage levels improved meaning that hthe sales of consumer goods also increased, and also for some people luxury purchases increased too. //The Beauty of Labour organisation ensured good standards of work. // The Strength through Joy provided leaiisruee activities for workers.
Changes in German standards of living 1933-39 (Bad) (2)- With trade unions banned, worker’s freedoms had been reduced// Rising prices in food cancelled out wage increases, as the Nazis limited farm output to keep the famers’ incomes high.
Key features of Germany’s rearmament (4)- German re-armament gave a huge boost to industry, which soon had millions of new jobs. From 1935, at first secretly, then quite openly, Hitler ordered the building of submarines, aircraft and tanks. This was quite contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.// The army was increased from 100,000 to 1,400,000 by 1939. Every man did two years military training after the Labour Service. // Under the impact of war the Nazis were forced to allow women to work, as industrial output increased. // Hitler wanted the German economy to be self-sufficient so that it would be able to operate even in a war. Foreign imports were restricted and research put into finding substitutes for rubber, petrol, coffee and cotton.
Cause of the persecution of minorities 1933-39 (1)- Hitler blamed Jews for re defeat of Germany in the First World War. He wanted to purify German blood by eliminating all Jews and other minority groups. // In April 1933, Nazis called for Jewish shops to be boycotted. Storm-troopers stood outside shops and stopped Germans from going in. // In 1933 Jews were also banned from some professions, doctors, dentists and the civil service.
Key features of the Nuremberg laws (5*)- (15 September 1935) Only those of German blood could be citizens and so Jews lost the right to vote and German passports // Jews were required to wear a coloured patch to set them apart from citizens // Forbade Jews from marrying Germain citizens // From 1938 things got worse Jews had to register all possessions, government would confiscate them // Jews had to carry identity cards
Cause of Kristallnacht - 7 November 1938 young Polish Jew assassinated a German diplomat in France
Nazi Persecution of Gypsies (3)- Gypsies arrested and sent to concentration camps // Nuremberg Laws meant that Gypsies could not marry Germans // April 1939 orders were given to collect all Gypsies, ready to be deported
Nazi persecution of homosexuals (2)- 1935 Laws against homosexuality strengthened, Many were sent to concentration camps // Laws also encouraged voluntary castration of homosexuals
Nazi persecution of the mentally ill (3)- Babies who were born disabled should be allowed to die // Doctors sterilised 700,00 physically or mentally disable people // Unofficial policy of killing disabled children by starvation or lethal injection
Impacts of Kristallnacht (4)- This led to an organised attack on Jewish shops, houses and synagogues all over Germany. 100 Jews killed; 20,000 arrested. // The Jewish community in Germany had to pay a ‘fine’ of 1 billion marks. // From early 1939 Jews were banned from owning businesses; all men to add the name 'Israel' and all women the name 'Sara' to their own. // The aim of the Nazis was to force Jews to leave Germany and many did, going to Britain, France and the USA in particular. But once war broke out this became more difficult, so Jews were forced into Concentration Camps.
DAF German Labour Front set up 1933
RAD National Labour Service set up1933
Nazi boycotts of jewish businesses beganApril 1933
Jews banned from government jobs May 1933
Jews banned from inheriting land September 1933
Lebensborn programme introduced1935
Laws against homosexuality strengthened1935
Jews banned from ArmyMay 1935
Nuremberg Laws passed15 September 1935
KristallnachtNovember 1938
Orders given to collect all GypsiesApril 1939
Kurt EisnerJewish leader of the communist rising in Munich 1918
Reinhard HeydrichLeader of the Reich Main security office, helped organise Kristallnacht
Hershel GrynszpanPolish Jew who shot German Diplomat in France