Naturalism and Intuitionism

archiebw's version from 2016-06-02 16:35


Question Answer
Naturalism and Intuitionism are n--------- theories.Normative.
Naturalism and Intuitionism are c---------- theories, and what does this mean?Cognitivist, and a theory that believes moral statements describe the world.
In what century did ethical naturalism come about?The 17th century.
In what sort of terms can ethical terms be described or explained as? Of what fields of study is this reminiscent?Natural terms, and mathematics and science.
What two things can we use to conclude ethical truths, according to ethical naturalists?Our sense perceptions and logic faculty.
What are two categories into which naturalists fall?Theological and hedonic naturalists.
What are two examples of proposed non-ethical elements that lead to ethical conclusions?Pleasure and God's will.
Which naturalist famously gave a definition of 'good' in the 20th century, and what was it?R.B. Perry, and 'being an object of favourable interest.'
Which naturalist famously gave a definition of 'right' in the 20th century, and what was it?R.B. Perry, and 'being conducive to harmonious happiness.'
Who said that "naturalists […] resort to all sorts of supposed facts" and which types did he name?Charles R. Pigden, and "sociological, psychological, scientific, even metaphysical or supernatural."


Question Answer
What is the book in which F.H. Bradley famously described his naturalist position, and in what year was it published?'Ethical Studies', and 1876.
Why did F.H. Bradley reject hedonism?Because, according to him, pleasure provided no final self-understanding.
Why did F.H. Bradley reject Immanuel Kant?Because, according to Bradley, the idea of duty for duty's sake does not give human satisfaction.
What is F.H. Bradley's quote beginning "We have found the end"?"We have found the end, we have found self-realisation, duty, and happiness in one – yes, we have found ourselves, when we have found our station and its duties, our function as an organ of the social organism.”
According to F.H. Bradley through which two things do we realise our true self?Our family and community.
According to F.H. Bradley, which two things are the good of society about?Hard work and obedience.


Question Answer
Who are the three philosophers related to intuitionism?G.E. Moore, H.A. Prichard and W.D. Ross.
Like what does Moore say the question 'Is happiness good?' sound if happiness were intrinsically good?"Does happiness make people happy?"
In what work did G.E. Moore famously argue against naturalism, and in which year was it published?'Principia Ethica', and 1903.
What, to G.E. Moore, are decisions?To G.E. Moore, to make a decision is to choose the action which is percieved to cause more of the 'good things' that we know intuitively.
Why is 'good' like 'yellow', according to G.E. Moore?It is a simple idea that cannot be defined or analysed.
What is the 'naturalistic fallacy'?Defining goodness as something else.
What is that painfully lame quote that encapsulates G.E. Moore's understanding of 'goodness', and who said it?“Everything is what it is and not another thing, ” and Joseph Butler.
What is Moore's 'open question argument'?His point that if a naturalist defines goodness as 'leading to pleasure' one can still allude to a thing which leads to pleasure and ask 'but is it good?'
In which ways is Moore like a normal intuitionist and not like a normal intuitionist?He thought that moral judgements are incapable of being proved, and he believed that moral judgements do not lie in human intuition, respectively.
What did Moore say all humans knew intuitively? (QUOTE)“The most valuable things which we know or can imagine […] are certain states of consciousness, which may roughly be described as the pleasures of human intercourse and the enjoyment of beautiful objects.”
How is Moore's theory similar to Utilitarianism?It says that the right acts are those which produce the most good.
What is the theory's greatest weakness?That Moore cannot demonstrate it conclusively.
Why is Moore's explanation for moral disagreements doubtful?He says that you either agree with his list of intrinsic and indefinable goods or you just haven’t thought about it properly.
Whence do Virtue Ethicists say moral intuition derives?Emotions and practical wisdom.


Question Answer
What did H.A. Prichard say a moral apprehension was like, and why?A mathematical apprehension, because it was immediate.
What are H.A. Prichard's two types of thinking, and how would they respond to an ethical dilemma?Intuition and reasoning; intuition determines what we should do after reasoning collects facts.
What is a weakness of H.A. Prichard's theory?He doesn't explain how one discriminates between the conclusions of people with stronger and weaker intuitions, despite proposing this idea of difference.


Question Answer
What is W.D. Ross's main contribution to intuitionism?His theory of 'prima facie' duties.
Which ethical theories, in addition to W.D. Ross's version of intuitionism, have a set of principles?Utilitarianism, Natural Moral Law and Kantian ethics.
What does 'prima facie' literally mean, and why?'At first appearance', and because when duties conflict, we must follow which one we think is right in the situation.
What are the seven prima facie duties?Promise keeping, reparation for harm done, gratitude, justice, beneficence, self-improvement and non-maleficence.
What is unusual about the seven prima facie duties, and to which theory is this similar?They don't tell us what to do, but have an emphasis on personal character, and Virtue Ethics.
What is W.D. Ross's criticism of G.E. Moore?That Moore's own theories are also guilty of the 'naturalistic fallacy'.

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