Natural Law

archiebw's version from 2016-05-26 17:48


Question Answer
Which play features an early reference to the concept of natural law?'Antigone'.
What does Aristotle say to elaborate on his view of 'natural justice' and in which book?“The natural is that which everywhere is equally valid […] just as fire burns both here and in Persia.” 'Nicomachean Ethics'.
What was the Ancient Stoics' fundamental belief and which word can be applied to it?A belief in a rational and purposeful order to the universe, and Logos, respectively.
What did the Ancient Stoics consider natural law? A law of......right reason.
How did St. Paul allude to natural law, and where?He spoke of a law written in the hearts of Gentiles, and in his Letter to Romans.
When was St. Thomas Aquinas born?1225.
When did St. Thomas Aquinas die?1274
As what did Aquinas describe natural law, involving what it is, where it exists and by whom it is created?A moral code which exists within the purpose of nature, created by God.
In which work did Aquinas outline his views on natural law?'Summa Theologica'.
What are Aquinas's primary precepts?Self-preservation and preservation of the innocent, reproduction, education of children, living in society and worshiping God.
In Aquinas's eye, why does natural law exist?So we act in a way which will help us reach an eternal destiny or fellowship with God.
What is the most basic precept, in which is contained all others?"Good is to be done and pursued, and evil is to be avoided."
What two things does Aquinas's natural law cover?Both an external view of actions and our inward motivation.
In which two ways is divine reason perceived?In the form of the Word of God in the Bible, and the use of human reason.
What is an arguably progressive quote by Aquinas about reason?'To disparage the dictate of reason is equivalent to condemning the command of God.'
Why, according to Aquinas, is human nature essentially good?We all have natural law within us.
In what way is Aquinas Botchwey-esque, and what is a term he uses here?He believes that humans can never knowingly pursue evil, and an 'apparent good'.
What type of person does Aquinas use as an example of someone pursuing an apparent good?A fornicator.
What is a 'cardinal virtue' and what are they specifically, according to Aquinas?A virtue found in our reason, and prudence, temperance, fortitude (courage in pain or adversity) and justice.
What is a 'theological virtue' and what are they specifically, according to Aquinas?A virtue found in Scripture, and faith, hope and charity.
What does Aquinas say developing virtues, and even developing sin, requires?Practice or habitualness.
Why are physical or academic pleasures not the end goal of life?Animals can experience them, and they aren't accessible to everyone, respectively.
Why is masturbation bad according to Aquinas?It involves the improper use of the genitals, which are supposed to lead to reproduction as per the primary precept.


Question Answer
To what are the strengths of Natural Law equivalent?The strengths of an absolutist deontological view of morality.
In what way could Natural Law enable people to create something positive?It could enable them to establish common rules in order to structure communities.
What is attractive about Aquinas's views in the modern age?In a world of inter-cultural strife, it would merit acknowledging that many cultures have the same values referenced in the Primary precepts.
Natural Law gives us a concrete reason to...... be moral.


Question Answer
What is a question that can fall under the weaknesses of Aquinas's Natural Law?Can daily instruction always be deduced from the primary precepts?
What is Karl Neilson's criticism of natural law and when did he say it? (QUOTE)"From the point of view of science, there is no such thing as an essential human nature which makes a man man. The concept of human nature is a rather vague cultural concept." and 1959.
According to Karl Neilson, what is some evidence that goes against Aquinas's claim that there is an essential human nature?Anthropologists have found that Scandinavians killed their elderly family members to allow them into Valhalla, a majestic, enormous hall in Norse mythology occupied by exclusively those who have died in combat.
What is perhaps evidence that human beings have changeable natures?People of non-heterosexual orientations
Why do Vardy and Grosch say that Aquinas's view is antiquated, and what belief of his do they specifically criticise in accordance?Because nowadays we see the human body more as a psycho-physical whole, and not just a collection of parts; his belief on the purpose of the genitalia, because sexual activity isn't only found there.
Why might some Christians disagree with Aquinas's theory of natural moral law?It is similar to the legalistic morality with which Jesus disagreed in the Bible.
Why does Kevin T. Kelly disagree with Aquinas's theory?Because he believes in personalism, that morality should be based on the person and not the action itself.
How is Aquinas's theory flexible?The secondary precepts, unlike the primary ones, may change in particular circumstances.

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