Native American Studies Exam #2
zadubono's 2016-10-31 17:30
Traditional tribal cultures of the Northeast
How did the originally abundant natural resource base affect the amount of time that pre-European contact Native Americans had to put into their art? Plenty of time to put into the art.
What natural animal product did Indians use to embroider with before they received the little glass beads from Europe? Porcupine quills
What are the five types of artistic activity? Decorative, ceremonial/spiritual, educational, entertainment, and trade and gift giving.
What is a nomadic lifestyle? Nomadic- the tribe moves camp several (3-6, avg.) times a year in a repeated annual cycle, according to the season of the natural resources and ceremonies.
What is a sedentary lifestyle? The tribe maintains permanent or semi-permanent village sites
Where did the Haudenosaunee and Wampanoag live? Wampanoag lived in Massachusetts and Haudenosaunee lived in New York.
What was the primary subsistence mode for the region? Horticulture with some hunting and gathering.
Identify the “3 sisters” of northeast horticulture Corn, squash, and beans
Identify Manito, Cautontowwit, Moshop, Squannit from the Wampanoag spirituality. Manito- spirit or mystery. Cautontowwit- Great Creator. Moshop and Squannit- pair of married, male and female guardian spirits.
What is the origin of the word, “powwow,” and the meaning of “sachem”? Sachem means male leader and powwow originally meant medicine person.
Identify the five original Iroquois nations and these important persons in the story of their union of nations- Hiawatha, Atotarho, Deganawidah. Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora. Tow helped formed the nations, one was a medicine person.
How was Atotarho transformed? He was healed and restored to his previous self.
What was the role of the elder women in selecting council representatives? Women could select and preside in the council.
Traditional tribal cultures of the Southeast
Identify the present-day states that contain the homeland of the Muskogee (Creek) people Georgia. South Carolina, Alabama.
Which of the Southeast tribes had the largest homeland land base? Cherokee
Which language group did 90% of the southeastern tribes belong to? Muscogean
What were their primary mobility and subsistence modes? Primarily horticulture, but with some hunting and gathering
Significance of the Green Corn ceremony (“Busk”); what time of year was it held? A type of first fruit or harvest ceremony, done in mid-summer, when first corn comes ripe; lasts seven or eight days (depending on tribe and village
How was amnesty a part of this festival? The world is renewed, so many hard feelings are buried and left behind.
Hopi Songs of the Fourth World
Do the Hopis believe that we are now living in the Fourth World and that there will be a fifth world after this world ends? yes/true
What is the most important horticultural crop for the Hopis? corn
What are the four colors of Hopi corn? red, white, blue, yellow
How do they irrigate their gardens? they didn't
What is a “kachina?” a hopi religous ritual at which masked dancers perform
How did a traditional Hopi young man formally express his wish to court a young woman? Serenading them on the corn fields
How was the first corn harvest of the season cooked? in a big pit
Cultures and People of the Southwest
Names and locations (by state) of the Southwestern tribes Navajo-Northern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southern Utah. Apache-Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
Names of two ancient civilizations from which many southwestern tribes are descended
What is the meaning of the term “language isolate?” Quechan- Yuma, Arizona. Tewa and Towa- Eastern Arizona and Western New Mexico.
What was the primary subsistence method in Southwest region- and the tribe which was the exception? Primarily horticulture, exception with Apaches.
Puberty, or coming of age ceremonies: purposes and benefits to the young individuals and to the communities Teaches young people how to become adults, provides young people with direction and security about the future, helps the young people to feel important, valued, loved, and celebrated, prevents “teenage problem behaviors”, benefits the whole tribe by assuring the elders that the traditions, values, and entire culture will continue
Tribes and Cultures of California
What was the Californian population at time of first contact with Europeans? 350,000 to 500,000 people
Number of tribes in California, pre-European contact or at time of first contact? App 105 tribes
Subsistence resources: What was the most popular nut in California (before Europeans arrived)? Acorns
Impacts of the abundant resource base no horticulture needed (except in far southeast corner); relatively peaceful intertribal relations; more leisure time; excellence and variety in basketry.
What was the most common type of ceremony in California and why? First fruit ceremonies
Why did people in the northeast, southeast, and California area have such large gathering baskets?
Columbian Plateau and Northern Rockies region
What is the difference between a costume and a traditional Native American dance outfit or “regalia?”
What was the spiritual, social, and economic significance of the potlatch? preserving unity; bringing honor to the family and to individuals; taking care of each other and reciprocating
Was anybody forced to be generous? No
What were some motivations for giving away most of their possessions? Cleansing?
Locations (by present day states) for the Salish, Kalispels, Spokan, Nez Perce, and Kootenai tribes Salish- Montana. Kalispel- Idaho. Spokan- Washington. Nez Perce- Oregon. Kootenai- Idaho.
Significant resources and mobility modes in the Columbia Plateau and the Northern Rockies? No horticulture, mostly hunting. Semi-sedentary to nomadic.
Variations by eastern and western parts of this region in the importance of buffalo and fish
Elements of coyote stories; some types of Salish and Kootenai ceremonies Coyote is on quest, demonstrates both weakness and power, has both wisdom and craftiness, accomplishes his task while learning a lesson.
Louie Adams guest lecture
Which tribe originally lived right here in Missoula and in the Bitterroot Valley? Salish
According to the coyote story that Louie told, why are there no salmon in the Bitterroot river?
According to Louie’s grandmother why did the Indians survive attempts to exterminate them?
People and Cultures of the Northwest
Identify focal tribes in NW and their locations, by state or province Oregon- Calapooya, Klamath (called “Takelma” on your map), Siletz, Wasci. Washington- Makah, Quileute, S’klallam, Snohomish, Skagit. British Columbia- Kwakiutl, Haida, Nootka. Alaska- Tlingit, Tsimshian
Subsistence resources- be sure you know the primary food resource and the primary non-food natural resource (“two primary resources”) Salmon and cedar
Any horticulture done in this region? Not much
Name the whale hunting tribes of the northwest Makah, Quileute, Nootka, Haida, Kwakiutl, Tlingit
What was the importance of the Salish language to this region?
Identify the three types of symbols carved on totem poles Spirit being guardians, Honored ancestor's of the family or clan, Significant people from the tribe or clan's history.
Did native people in this region do any theater?
Peoples and cultures of the Plains and the western Great Lakes area
Present-day locations (by state or province) for the Blackfeet, Lakota, Mandan, Hidatsa, Assiniboine, Gros Ventre, Crow, Ojibway (“Chippewa,” or, Anishinabe), Cree, Menominee?
During which century did many Plains tribes get horses and move onto the Plains?
What was the number 1 subsistence resource in the Plains region? Buffalo
How many different uses were there for this particular animal resource? At least 100
Mobility modes; which three Plains tribes were NOT nomadic? Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara
Which tribes on the Plains practiced horticulture? Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara
Four of the most important spiritual and ceremonial traditions on the Plains were and are Vision quest, Sun dance, Sweat lodge, pipe bundle ceremony.
Each sweat lodge has a guardian ___________ and a human ______________, or else you might as well just be having a sauna Spirit and caretaker
Whose paintings recorded Plains culture and people about 30 years before they were ever photographed? Karl Bodmer
True or False: all native men of the Plains always wore their hair in two braids False
Identify the 3 basic social classes in Europe at the time of first contact Peasants, royals, and merchants
Which class was the largest and from which class did most of the immigrants to America come? Serfs were the largest class and also the most to come to America.
Motivations of the peasant class for going to America Sent by royals or merchants as indentured servants
What is an indentured servant? They work for a certain amount of time in exchange for their freedom
Motivations of the royals of Europe for sending people to America (varies a little by nation and monarchy) dominion and for national resources
What are the two primary types or categories of difference between traditional Native American cultures and European cultures?
Understand “Dominion Theology” and “The Great Chain of Being"
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