Music History Final

kudayuhu's version from 2016-05-01 16:58


Question Answer
program musicmusic that follows a story. has extramusical association
What else did program music do?furthered innovation, expressed emotions, accessible, allowed for synthesis with other art forms
Who advocated for program music?Wagner and Liszt
symphonic poemone movement orchestral work, with program coined in 1854
Absolute musicmusic that is not 'about' anything. no words
what else did absolute music do?furthered innovation, expresses emotion, is 'universal', is aesthetically pure
who advocated for absolute music?Eduard Hanslick and was associated with Brahms
Program music vs absolute music debateno one 'wins', but absolute music remains important in 20th century because universal and aesthetically pure
chaconneBaroque form that consists of series of variates over repeating bass line in triple meter
Mahlerconductor, composer, influenced by Wagner. works weren't well received at first. rediscovered in 60's
Mahler's Jewish Backgroundenter's vienna conservatory, get's first conducting job at vienna opera, converts to catholicism, conducted at Met in New York
claquepaid clapping
Friedrich Ruckertinspired Kindertotenlieder through his poetry- orchestral song cycle
Recording technologyprovides access to historical vernacular music, spreads music traditions far beyond the local, affects how people think about 'performance'
Modernismnot about being 'modern', reaction to romantic ideals of 20th cent. quest for innovation is central. rejection of conventions, not just modification
post tonal musicresult of different ways composers organized pitch after the rejection of tonality
symbolismart should capture absolute truth only through indirect methods. evokes emotion rather than describe. is poetry.
Musical impressionismno goal oriented structures or intensive development techniques. washes sound, interested in timbre/tone color
more facts about musical impressionismIt's tonal, but incorporate diatonic scales like whole tone, pentatonic, octatonic
harmonic planingchords that don't follow 'progression', no tension and release. chords defined by melodic contour. uses parallel triads, 7th chords or 9th chords
neoclassicismmvmt from 1910's-50's in which composers evoked pre-romantic music from 18th cent.
Second Viennese schoolWebern, Berg, Schoenberg. pre romantic group of french neoclassicists who wrote music in 20th century that aimed for atonality
Expressionismartistic movement associated with expressing inner, psychological states. associated with darker side of humanity, moving away from realism to abstraction
emancipation of dissonanceidea that dissonance is more of a remote consonance - doesn't need to resolve. Schoenberg said past german composers used dissonance naturally
atonal musicmusic that lacks a tonic and had no central pitch
"developing variation:larger structure is build and endlessly varying and repeating a small idea. Schoenberg said Brahms did this, but traces back to Beethovenian organicism
Sprechstimmesinging technique, words are half spoken, half sung
serialismtwelve-tone method of composing, using rows or series
tone row12 chromatic pitches arranged in order chosen by composer
Klangfarbenmelodie"tone color melody", idea that changes in timbre similar to changing pitch in melody, timbre is part of melody
Ballet Russeshighly influential modernist dance company, based in Paris
Serge Diaghilevimpresario (producer) of Ballets Russes
Vaslav Nijinskychoreographer for several Ballets Russes productions
primitivismbelief that primitive cultures are superior to those of contemporary civilization
Bartok's interest in folk musicnational focus revitalizes culture, resists Austro-Hungarian empire. Gain's interest in Slovak and Romanian music and mutual influence. early published works, example of comparative musicology
arch formlike a palindrome. A B A B' A'
Dissonant counterpointCharles Seeger describes this as: reverses rules of tonal counterpoint to create "dissonation"
Copland and politicsinterested in socialism and communism. but politics are best described as aligning with the Popular Front
Popular Frontbroad-based left wing American social movement. farther left than New Deal. supported american labor movement and promoted social democracy. anti fascist
total serialismapplying serial techniques to musical parameters other than pitch, including duration, intensity, and timbre
combinational rowstone row in which hexachords can be combined from different permutations and no pitches will be duplicated
"who cares if you listen"essay by Babbitt published in High Fidelity. composition is similar to scientific experimentation. should free form commercial pressures, should be housed in university setting
avante garde musicmusic that is irreverent and antagonistic - seeks to overthrow established styles and tastes
aleatoric musicmusic in which some elements are created by chance. idea is to remove composer intention from works
electronic musicusing technology to produce/make sounds and music. synth, computers, etc
musique concretemusic composed by assembling and manipulating recorded sounds from everyday life. associated with Pierre Schaeffer from Paris
Postmodernismassociated with last 3rd of 30th cent. refers to artistic attitude rather than particular style.
Post Modernism pt 2rejects central idea that history progress in one direction. embraces past as well as diversity of 20th cent
Post modernism pt 3considers all approaches valid, does not assume difference between "high" and "low" art.
phasingeffect in which one part moves at slightly different tempo than other, eventually becoming out of sync
minimalismapplied to music in 60's-70's. reaction against difficult, modernistic music, attempt to make musical process transparent.
minimalism pt 2associated with art/music scene on West Coast in San Fran. simple melodies, steady pulse, extended sense of time
tintinnabulipart writing style which sounds like ringing bells. one voice sings diatonic melody that moves by step. other voices sing notes of tonic triad at predetermined time