Music History Final Page 2

tsa19330's version from 2015-12-08 16:08


Question Answer
English opera contextcombines french, Italian and native english traditions with different political contexts.
ground bassrepeating bass line + soprano w/ harpsichord accompaniment. Later in time has orchestra accompaniment
catchunaccompanied round, with humorous text. sung by all males
concertato styleone or more voiced w/ instruments which play individual parts. don't double voice.
Venice-remains center for opera but is supported in many Italian cities.
Binary Forma two-part form, in which the A section and the B section each repeat.
Star singersInfluenced baroque opera. composers wrote arias for them. singers heavily featured.
Da capo aria"from the head" includes ritornello which is refrain that returns between sections of composition.
Cantada (Italian)leding genre of vocal music. composition centered in Rome. Secular for solo voice/continuo.
Text of Italian Cantada was about-pastoral love poetry. usually soliloquy.
form of italian cantada-recitative and aria. was not staged. performed privately.
Barbara Strozzipublished more cantatas than anyone else in her time. composed for private gatherings in venice.
More info at Barbara StrozziDaughter of poet, librettist. Studied with Monteverdi. Did not perform in public.
Sonata (post 1650)sections become longer. Composers create movements. multi movement work.
More info about sonata (post 1650)linked to affections, most movements in same key. no share thematic material.
sonata de camerachamber sonata. series of dances. begins with prelude.
sonata de chiesa church sonata. abstract movements (binary form). played in place of mass proper.
trio sonata3 part texture. 2 treble one bass continuo. can feature 4+ players depending on continuo part.
Corelli's stlyemelody/texture was lyrical. 2 upper parts exchange material.
Harmony of Corelli's stlyediatonic, tonal, lots of suspensions.
Employers of musicians in Germanythirty years war. work for musicians in german states in courts which mimic the french.
Stadtpfeifertown piper, to provide music. music as a trade, linked to famalies
Stadtpfeifer in churcheslutheran churches sponsor concerts/recitals for amateur societies.
collegium musicumamateurs who play together, hired to play in private concerts
developments in organmany features added. divide pipes into groups, each with own keyboard.
early music movementuse period instruments, read historical treatises on ornamentation. encourage improv.
authenticity of convictionauthentic performance is one with conviction which may not be everyones taste. That's the point.
concertoinstrumental version of concerto medium. piece for instrument or voice.
concerto grossosets small ensemble (concertino) against large ensemble
solo concertoone or more soloists with large ensemble
pietaorphanage in Venice for foundlings. women and girls trained in music. performed sundays/ special occasions. vivaldi is teacher
Vivaldo Concertoswritten for church festivals. for players of different abilities. for different instrumentation
Vivaldi conventionsstandardized 3 movements, fast slow fast, 1st/3rd movement are ritornello
ritornello formplayed by orchestra in stable keys. feature set musical idea. Episodes- modulate, virtuosic, introduce new material
Rameau Treatises on HarmonyBased on theory on laws of acoustics. Triads and 7th chords are primary elements. chords have root.
More on treatises on harmonychords keep identity despite inversions. chords define harmony.
What drives music according to Rameaudissonance that resolve to consonance. hierarchy of functional chords. names tonic, dominant, subdominant. modulation to secondary key could occur.
Ramistes vs Lullistessimilar: mix of recitatives, airs, choruses and diverstitements. They differed cause Rameau though melody rooted harmony.
French stylistic conflict with italianFrench though of Italian music as sensuous and unrefined. Italian opera was sexual.
Bradenburg Concertos3 movement structure like Vivaldi. Use of ritornellos, orchestra alternatives w/ soloist.
Well tempered Clavier24 preludes and fugues in each key. By Bach. suggests equal temperament.
equal temperamenttuning that has 12 equal half steps in the octave; 3rds and 6ths are "tempered"
Fuguepiece in imitative counterpoint
expositioninitial entry of voices in fugue. First entrance is subject second entrance is answer.
Cantata (lutheran)musical setting of sacred poetic texts. use chorale, solo song recitative and aria. main music of service. bach write more than 300
Handel in LondonAttends Royal Academy of music. - Joint Stock Company- company that funded handels compositions
Farinellirange of 3+ octaves. Within Italy, was rise of star Castrati.
Conventions of Handel's Operas series of da capo aria. written to suit singer, character scene, etc. few duets/chorus numbers.
Oratorio pre-Handelcombines narrative, dialogue, commentary with music. not staged. religious. recitative, aria, duets, etc.
Oratorio - HandelStill incorporates Recitative and arias. chorus participates in action and helps narrate story. uses english chorale style.