Musculoskeletal 2

juniperk's version from 2018-02-27 04:20


Question Answer
What is a complete fracture? a break across the entire crosssection of the bone and is frequently displaced (removed from its normal position)
What is a incomplete fracture? a break through only part of the cross-section of the bone
What is comminuted fracture? one that produces several bone fragments.
What is a closed fracture (simple fracture)? one that does not cause a break in the skin
What is an open fracture (compound, or complex, fracture)?one in which the skin or mucous membrane wound extends to the fractured bone
What is an intra-articular fracture?Extends into the joint surface of a bone.
The neurovascular status distal to the injury should be assessed when in regards to emergency splinting?Both before and after splinting to determine the adequacy of peripheral tissue perfusion and nerve function.
What is the emergency management with an open fracture?With an open fracture, the wound is covered with a sterile dressing to prevent contamination of deeper tissues. No attempt is made to reduce the fracture, even if one of the bone fragments is protruding through the wound. Splints are applied for immobilization
What type of exercises are encouraged after a fracture has been repaired and is healing?Isometric and muscle setting exercises are encouraged to minimize atrophy and to promote circulation.
Open fracture- What are administered immediately upon the patient’s arrival in the hospital? Intravenous (IV) antibiotics along with tetanus toxoid if needed
The classic triad of clinical manifestations of Fat Embolism Syndrome include what? When do the symptoms begin? hypoxemia, neurologic compromise, and a petechial rash. The onset of symptoms is rapid, typically within 12 to 72 hours of injury. The typical first manifestations are pulmonary and include hypoxia and tachypnea. The patient may exhibit a spectrum of pulmonary manifestations that may or may not include crackles, wheezes, precordial chest pain, cough, large amounts of thick white sputum, and tachycardia.
How to treat FES?1 Respiratory support is provided with high-flow oxygen. Controlled-volume ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure, 2 Corticosteroids, 3 Vasopressor medications, and 4 Accurate fluid intake and output records 5 facilitate adequate fluid replacement therapy.
Hypovolemic shock resulting from hemorrhage is more frequently noted in trauma patients with what?trauma patients with pelvic fractures and in patients with a displaced or open femoral fracture in which the femoral artery is torn by bone fragments.
What are the 4 early complications from fractures? Early complications include shock, fat embolism, compartment syndrome, and venous thromboembolism
Delay in treatment of compartment syndrome may have what kind of damage?Nerve and muscle tissues deteriorate as compartment pressure increases.
How is compartment syndrome managed?By maintaining the extremity at the heart level (not above heart level), and opening and bivalving the cast or opening the splint, if one or the other is present.
Compartment syndrome- If tissue perfusion and pain is not relieved in 1 hour then what is done?A fasciotomy (surgical decompression with excision of the fascia) is done. After fasciotomy, the wound is not sutured but is left open to allow the muscle tissues to expand; it is covered with moist, sterile saline dressings or with artificial skin. Alternatively, a vacuum dressing may be used to remove fluids and hasten wound closure
Nonunion vs malunion?Nonunion results from failure of the ends of a fractured bone to unite, whereas malunion is the healing of a fractured bone in a malaligned position
What are the conservative treatment for avascular necrosis of the bone? 71. NSAIDs 2. Bisphosphonates 3. statins 4. anticoagulants 5. rest, 6 PT 7. electrical stimulation
What can prevent Heterotopic Ossification?Early mobilization
How are Stable pelvic fractures are treated? few days of bed rest and symptom management until discomfort is controlled. Fluids, dietary fiber, ankle and leg exercises, anti-embolism stockings to aid venous return, logrolling, deep breathing, and skin care
Immediate treatment in the emergency department for a patient with an unstable pelvic fracture include what?stabilizing the pelvic bones and compressing bleeding vessels with a pelvic girdle, which is an external binding and stabilizing device.

Recent badges