Muscular System

cibukole's version from 2017-12-05 10:21

Study Guide

Chapter 22 - Medical Office Assistant


Question Answer
The human body has 600 indivisual muscles
Muscles causes bones to moveAlternating between contraction and relaxation

Functions - Movement

Question Answer
Skeletal Muscles (a) Attatched to bones by tendons
Skeletal Muscles (b)Cross joints so when they contract, bones they attatch to moves
Skeletal Muscles areVoluntary
Smooth Muscles (a)Found on Organ walls
Smooth Muscles (b)Contractions produce movement of organ content
Smooth Muscles areInvoluntary
Cardiac Muscles (a)Produces atrial and ventricular contractions
Cardiac Muscles (b)Pumps blood from the heart into blood vessels
Cardiac Muscles areInvoluntary

Functions - Stability & Heat Production

Question Answer
Functions of MusclesHolds bones tighter together, Stabilize joints
Small musclesHold vertebrae together, Stabilize the spinal column
Heat is released byMuscle contractions
Heat helps the bodyMaintain normal temperature

Types of Muscle Tissue

Question Answer
Skeletal Muscle (Major Location)Bone and skin of the face
Skeletal Muscle (Major Function)Produces body movements and facial expressions
Smooth Muscle (Major Location)Walls of hollow organs, blood vessels and iris
Smooth Muscle (Major Function)Moves contents through organs, vasoconstriction
Cardiac Muscle (Major Location)Wall of the heart
Cardiac Muscle (Major Function)Pumps blood through heart

Skeletal Muscles

Question Answer
Neurotransmitter acetylcholineCauses skeletal muscle to contract
AcetychoinesteraseAllows muscle to relax

Smooth Muscles

Question Answer
PeristalsisPushes substances through tubes of the body
Neurotransmitter (Smooth Muscle)Acetycholine, Norepinephrine

Cardiac Muscles

Question Answer
Neurotransmitter (slows heart rate)Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter (speeds heart rate)Norepinephrine

Production of Energy for Muscle

Question Answer
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) isA type of chemical energy
ATP is needed forSustained or repeated muscle contractions
Aerobic respirationBody's store of glucose
Lactic Acid ProductionSmall amounts of ATP

Production of Energy (Oxygen Debt)

Question Answer
AerobicWith Oxygen
AnaerobicWithout Oxygen

Structure of Skeletal Muscles

Question Answer
Skeletal Muscles areMajor components of Muscular System
Compositions (a)Connective Tissue
Composition (b)Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Composition (c)Blood vessels
Composition (d)Nerves


Question Answer
Fascia (a)Covers entire skeletal muscles
Fascia (b)Separates them from each other
Tendon (a)A tough, cord-like structure made of fibrous connective tissue
Tendon (b)Connects muscle to bone

Major Skeletal Muscles (Upper Arm, Head and Back)

Question Answer
Pectoralis Major (a)Pulls the arm across the chest
Pectoralis Major (b)Rotates and adducts the arms
Latissimus dorsi (a)Exntends and adducts the arm
Latissimus dorsi (b)Rotates the arm inwardly
Superasinatus (above/over)Upper part of edges shoulders
Infrasinatus (below/under)Outter part of shoulder blades
DeltoidsShoulders (Anterior & Posterior)
RhomboidsUpper part of back
LatisumusLower back

Major Skeletal Muscles (Abdominal)

Question Answer
Transverse abdominis (a)Wraps around he abdomin and love handles (gurtle)
Tranverse abdominis (b)Deepest Muscle
External obliques (love handles)Deep
Internal obliques (love handles)Deeper
Rectus AdbominisLongest Muscle

Major Skeletal Muscles (Leg/Hamstrings - All Posterior)

Question Answer
Back of thigh muscle (1)Biceps Femoris
Back of thigh muscle (2)Semitendinosus
Back of thigh muscle (3)Semimebranosus
Gluteus MaximusLargest muscle of the body

Major Skeletal Musucles (Leg/Quad - All Posterior)

Question Answer
Rectus FemorisMiddle part of leg
Vastus MedialisInner part of leg
Vastus IntermediusDeep in leg (under Rectus Femoris)
SartoriusExtends hop to medial part of knee

Major Skeletal Muscles (Ankle, Foot and Toes)

Question Answer
Tibialis AnteriorShin
Gastrocnemius (Posterior)Calf
SoleusBehind calf muscle
Calcabeal TendonsLargest Tendon
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Connects Femur to Tibia