Muscles continued

kshinsky's version from 2017-07-30 19:26


Question Answer
motor unitonly in skeletal muscle
recruitmentmultiple motor unit summation, smooth motion and increasing tension are produced by slowly increasing the size or number of motor units stimulated
muscle tonenormal tension present in a muscle at rest, normal tension and firmness of a msucle, increase msucle tone with exercise
isotonic contractionsame tension but different length
isometric contractiondifferent tension but with same length
atpactive energy
creatine phosphate (CP)storage molecule for excess atp energy in resting muscle
creatine kinase (CK)enzyme
atp generationanarobic and aerobic
anarobicusing primary glucose, produces 2 atp per 1 molecule of glucose, breaks down glyocgen in skeletal muscle, no oxygen required
aerobicfatty acids, primary energy source of resting muscles, breaks down fatty acids, produces 34 atp molecules per 1 glucose molecule
muscle fatigueno longer can contract when expected to, inadequate atp and low pH
hormones and muscle metabolismgrowth, testosterone, thyroid hormones, epinephrine
types of fibersfast, slow, intermediate
fast fibersanarobic, quick and powerful, prone to fatigue, large diameter, large glycogen reserve, few mitochondria
slow fibersaerobic, contract slowly, no powerful, fatigue resistant, high oxygen supply, contains myoglobin
myoglobinred pigment, binds oxygen
intermediate fibermid sized, low myoglobin, more capillaries then fast fibers, slower to fatigue
muscle hypertrophymuscle growth from heavy training, increase mitochondria, glycogen reserve, increase size, increase muscle fiber
muscle atrophylack of muscle activity, lack in muscle size, tone, and power
cardiac muscle fibersstriated, small, uninucleated, involuntary
cariocystssmall cell, mostly uninuclear, small t-tubules, no triads, no terminal cisternae, aerobic,
interculated disccontains gap junctions and desmisomes
desmisonestight connections and attachments
pacemaker cellswhat the heart is controlled by
sinoatrial nodewhere pacemaker cells are found
time of contraction for cardiac cellten times as long
cardiac contraction250 msec
cardiac muscle fibers containslow calcium channels
smooth muscle cellsspindle shaped, tapered shape, non striated, uninuclear
smooth muscle found inskin, digestive tract, unrinary, reproductive, gladular, blood vessel, and respiratory areas
resistanceopposite to flow, ex: vasoconstriction
smooth muscles do not havet-tubules, myofibrils, sacromeres
smooth muscle functionto regulate local areas
multiunit smooth cellsconnected to motor neurons
visceral smooth muscle cellsno connection to nervous system
pacesetter cellsfound in visceral smooth muscle cells, gives off periodic impulse and creates hythimic cycle

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