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Muscle PT1

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liruyuro's version from 2017-03-22 03:28

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Found in heart, short, has striations, has two nucleus, and intercalated disksCardiac muscle
Found in walls of hollow organs and other visceral areas. Cells are short and spindle-shaped, unstriated with one nucleus Smooth muscle
Mostly attached to skeleton; some control outer openings. Cells (fibers) are long, cylindrical, striated, and multinucleate. All voluntarily controlled musclesSkeletal muscle
Skeletal movement - pull on solid levelsFunction of Skeletal muscle
Support soft tissue - walls of abdominal cavity, pelvic floorFunction of Skeletal muscle
Posture and position - constant tensionFunction of Skeletal muscle
Controlling outer openings - guard against intrusion, control of swallow/defecation/urinationFunction of Skeletal muscle
Maintain temperature - produce heatFunction of Skeletal muscle
Nutrient supply - proteins broken down to amino acids which can be metabolizedFunction of Skeletal muscle
Delicate connective tissue around each individual fiberEndomysium
Fibrous layer that bundles fibers into fasciclesPerimysium
Tough collagenous layer around entire muscle organEpimysium
Cord like bundleTendon
AponeurosisSheet of dense connective tissue
Darker striationsA band (thick filaments)
Lighter striationsI band (no thick filaments)
Lighter area in the middle of the A band, where there are thick filaments, but no thinH band
proteins holding center of each thick filament to one anotherM line
boundary between sarcomeresZ line
plasma membrane of a muscle fiberSarcolemma
cytoplasm of muscle fiberSarcoplasm
smooth ER that is a calcium reservoirSarcoplasmic reticulum
contractile organelle inside the muscle (made of sarcomeres)Myofibril
Proteins that makes up thin filamentsActin
threadlike protein that, at rest, blocks active sites on actinTropomyosin
protein with binding sites to actin, tropomyosin, and calciumTroponin
protein in thick filamentsMyosin
Resting tension is calledMuscle tone
Tension rises until it exceeds loadIsotonic contractions
Tension remains constant as muscle shortens and load is movedIsotonic contractions
“Normal” in the sense that movement is achievedIsotonic contractions
Tension does not exceed loadIsometric contractions
Individual muscle fibers shorten, connective tissue stretchesIsometric contractions
Muscle length constantIsometric contractions
“Immoveable object”Isometric contractions
Rapid stimuli produces near maximum tension, some relaxation still occursIncomplete Tetanus
Maximum tension reached, No relaxation evidentComplete Tetanus
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