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Mughals

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santhoshv339's version from 2017-02-11 18:15

Political

Question Answer
Who was the founder of Mughal empire in India ?Babur
Battle of Khanua (near Agra) held in 1527 was between ?Babur and Rana Sangha of Mewar
Mother tounge of Babur was ?Turki
The rule of Babur was between ?1526-1530
The rule of Humayun was between ?1530-1540 and 1555-1556
Battle of Chausa, held in 1539 was between ?Between Sher Khan and Humayan - Humayan lost
Battle of Bilgram or Battle of Kanuaj in 1540 was between ?Between Sher Khan and Humayan - Humayan lost
Sur Interregnum was between the years ?1540-1555
The founder of the Sur dynasty was ?Sher Shah or Farid
The second Battle of Panipat in 1556 was between ?Commander-in-Chief of Afghan forces Hemu
How was Akbars relation with Rajputs ?married the Rajput princess, the daughter of Raja Bharamal, Rajputs served the Mughals for four generations, Raja Bhagawan Das and Raja Man Singh were given senior positions
Battle of Haldighati was between ?Rana Pratap Singh of Mewar a Rajput and Akbar (Mughal army led by Man Singh in 1576)
The rule of Akbar was between ?1556-1605
The rule of Jahangir was between ?1605-1627
The rule of Shah Jahan was between ?1627-1658
What was the Deccan policy of Shah jahan ? defeated the forces of Ahmadnagar and annexed it - Both Bijapur and Golkonda signed a treaty with the emperor - he carved four Mughal provinces in the Deccan – Khandesh, Berar, Telungana and Daulatabad and put them under the control of his son Aurangazeb
Who were the four sons of Shah Jahan who were part of war of succession ?Dara Shikoh (crown prince), Shuja (governor of Bengal), Aurangazeb (governor of Deccan) and Murad Baksh (governor of Malwa and Gujarat)
The Deccan policy of the Mughals started from the reign of ?Akbar - conquered Khandesh and Berar -later Jahangir fought against Malik Amber of Ahmadnagar
Aurangazeb was the governor of Deccan during period of ?Shah Jahan
To contain the spread of the Marathas, Aurangazeb decided to invade ?Bijapur and Golkonda
Who was the ruler of Bijapur defeated by Aurangazeb ?Sikandar Shah and Akbar
Which kingdom ruled Golkonda when Aurangazeb invaded it ?Kutb Shahi dynasty
How was the destruction of the Deccan kingdoms a political blunder on the part of Aurangazeb ?The barrier between the Mughals and the Marathas was removed and there ensued a direct confrontation between them - Also, his Deccan campaigns exhausted the Mughal treasury. According to J.N. Sarkar, the Deccan ulcer ruined Aurangazeb
The rule of Aurangazeb was between ?1658-1707
Aurangazeb assumed the title ?Alamgir, World Conqueror
Which kingdoms revolted against Aurangazeb because of his religious policies ? Rajputs, the Marathas and Sikhs, Jats of Mathura and the Satnamis of Mewar
What was one of religious reason for invasion of deccan sultanates in to Mughal empire ?Aurangazeb's hatred towards shia faith
What was the first hint of downfall of Mughal empire ?Nadir Shah imprisoned the Mughal Emperor and looted Delhi in 1739
What were some of the reasons for downfall of Mughal empire ?religious and Deccan policies of Aurangazeb, weak successors and demoralization of the Mughal army, vastness of empire, financial difficulties, neglect of sea power, invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali
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Administration

Question Answer
Under Sher Shah’s Administration who was in charge of Revenue and Finance ?Diwan –i- Wizarat– also called as Wazir
Under Sher Shah’s Administration who was in charge of Army ?Diwan-i-Ariz
Under Sher Shah’s Administration who was in charge of Foreign Minister ?Diwan-i-Rasalat
Under Sher Shah’s Administration who was in charge of or Minister for Communications ?Diwan-i-Insha
Sher Shah’s empire was divided into ?sarkars (two officers in charge of the administration in eachsarkar)
Under Sher Shah’s empire who was responsible for law and order ?Chief Shiqdar
Under Sher Shah’s empire judge was ? Chief Munsif
Under Sher Shah’s Administration Each sarkar was divided into several ?parganas
Under Sher Shah’s Administration Parganas was administered by ?Karkuns(accountants
Under Sher Shah’s Administration military officer was ?Shiqdar
Under Sher Shah’s Administration land revenue was taken care by ?Amin
Under Sher Shah’s Administration treasurer was ?Fotedar
Under Sher Shah's Administration iqtas were ?Administrative units
Which idea did Sher Shah obtain from Alauddin Khalji ?Branding of horses
How was law and order during the reign of Sher Shah ?Police was efficiently reorganized and crime was less
Akbar introduced which system in his administration ?Mansabdari
What was Mansabdari system ?Under this system every officer was assigned a rank (mansab)
Under Mansabdari system the lowest and higest ranks were ?lowest rank was 10 and the highest was 5000 for the nobles
Who were given higher ranks in Mansabdari system ?Princes of royal blood
Under Mansabdari system the ranks were divided into ?two –zat and sawar
Under mansabdari system what was Zat ?Zat means personal and it fixed the personal status of a person\
Under mansabdari system what was Sawar ?Sawar rank indicated the number of cavalrymen of a person who was required to maintain. Every sawar had to maintain at least two horses. Was the mansab rank hereditary ?no
Who took care of all appointments, promotions and dismissals ?Emperor.
memorize

Economy

Question Answer
During Sher Shah's reign cultivable lands were classified into ?3 classes – good, middle and bad
During Sher Shah's reign The state’s share was ?one third of the average produce and it was paid in cash or crop (His revenue reforms increased the revenue of the state)
The silver coins introduced by Sher Shah were called ?Dam
Sher Shah improved the communications by laying four important highways - They were ?1. Sonargaon to Sind 2. Agra to Burhampur 3. Jodhpur to Chittor and 4. Lahore to Multan
What was done by Sher Shah for convenience of the travelers ?Rest houses were built on the highways
Akbar made some experiments in the land revenue administration with the help of ?Raja Todar Mal
The land revenue system of Akbar was called ?Zabti or Bandobast system - later improved by Raja Todar Mal called Dahsala
What was Bandobast system ?uniform system of land measurement - The revenue was fixed on the average yield of land assessed on the basis of past ten years
Under the Bandobast system the land was also divided into four categories called ?Polaj (cultivated every year),Parauti (once in two years),Chachar(once in three or four years) and Banjar (once in five or more years)
Under Bandobast system the payment of revenue was made generally in ?cash
What was the condition of rural masses during winter ?Nikitin observed that the people of Deccan were bare-footed (probably due to high cost of leather)
Which food commidity was cheap and which were costly ?While ghee and oil were cheaper, salt and sugar were more expensive
Was there enough production of milk ? As plenty of cattle were kept by the rural people, milk and milk products were available in plenty
Tobacco and maize cultivations started in ?17th century
Potato and Red chilly cultivation started in ?18th century
Was there any technological advancement in agriculture ?no new agricultural technique was introduced
Which products were exported to other countries ?rice and sugar
Seth, bohra traders specialized in which trade ?long distance
Local traders were called ?banik
Who were banjaras ?traders who specialized in carrying bulk goods - The banjaras used to move to long distances with their goods on the back of oxen
What were the means of transport to move bulk goods ?rivers on boats and land
Did the trading community belong to one caste or religion ?no
The Gujarathi merchants included which religions ?the Hindus, Jains and Muslims.
Which communties came to be called as Marwaris ?In Rajasthan, Oswals, Maheshwaris and Agarwals
Which communities conducted trade with central Asia ?Multanis, Khatris and Afghanis.
Which communities in South India were important in Trading ?Chettis on the Coramandal coast and the Muslim merchants of Malabar
Which items were exported from Bengal ?sugar, rice as well as delicate muslin and silk.
Which coast became a cenre for textile production ?Coramandal coast
Which present day state became an entry point for foreign goods and export of Indigo and food grains + textile and silk taken to north India + distribution centre for the luxury products of Kashmir such as shawls and carpets?Gujarat
What were the major imports to India ?metals such as tin and copper, war horses and luxury items such as ivory
How was the balance of trade maintained ?by the import of gold and silver - growth of foreign trade had resulted in the increased import of gold and silver in the seventeenth century
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Social life

Question Answer
What was Sher Shah's attitude towards other religions ?Sher Shah remained a pious Muslim and generally tolerant towards other religions ( employed Hindus in important offices
What was Akbar's attitude towards Hindus ?Tolerant ,abolished the pilgrim tax and later the jiziya
What were the reasons for Akbar's religious ideas ? early contacts with the sufi saints, the teachings of his tutor Abdul Latif, his marriage with Rajput women, his association with intellectual giants like Shaikh Mubarak and his two illustrious sons – Abul Faizi and Abul Fazl,ambition to establish an empire in Hindustan
What was Ibadat Khana ?A House of worship built by Akbar at his new capital Fatepur Sikri -he invited learned scholars from all religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism
What did Akbar do to control interference of the Muslim Ulemas in political matters ?he issued the “Infallibility Decree” by which he asserted his religious powers
Akbar promulgated a new religion called ?Din Ilahi or Divine Faith(But was not very successful)
Aurangazeb created a separate department to enforce moral codes under a high-powered officer called ?Muhtasib
Under Aurangazeb which practices were prohibited ?Drinking, Bhang and other drugs cultivation and use,music in mughal court,discontinued the practice of Jarokhadarshan, Dasarah and royal astronomers and astrologers,celebration of Muharram (hatred of the Shia faith)
What was the attitude of Aurangazeb towars Hindus ?banned the construction of new Hindu temples and repair of old temples ,policy of destroying Hindu temples eg at Mathura and Benares were reduced to ruins ,reimposed jiziya and pilgrim tax, executed the ninth Sikh Guru Tej Bahadur
memorize

Literature

Question Answer
Who wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi ?Babur - his memoirs
Who wrote Padmavat ?Malik Muhammad Jayasi - contemporary of Sher Shah - in Hindi
Which language became widespread in the Mughal Empire by the time of Akbar’s reign?Persian
Abul Fazl (prose writing) was a contemporary of ?Akbar
Ain-i-Akbaria nd Akabar Nama authored by ?Abul Fazl
The leading poet of that Akbars period was ? Abul Faizi - The translation of Mahabharata into the Persian language was done under his supervision
Utbi and Naziri were poets of which language ?Persian
Jahangir’s autobiography was ?Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri
Jahangir patronized some scholars such as ? Ghiyas Beg, Naqib Khan and Niamatullah
Who wrote Padshah Nama ?Abdul Hamid Lahori - contemporary of Shah Jahan
Who wrote Shah Jahan Nama ?Inayat Khan
Who translated the Bhagavat Gita and Upanishads into the Persian language ?Dara Shikoh - son of Shah Jahan
From whose times Hindi poets were attached to the Mughal court ?Akbar
Who wrote Ramcharitmanas ?Tulsi das - Hindi version of Ramayana
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Paintings and Music

Question Answer
The foundation for the Mughal painting was laid by ?Humayun when he was staying in Persia
Humayun brought with him two painters to India who were ?Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdal Samad
Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdal Samad became famous during ?Akbar’s reign
Who commissioned the illustrations of several literary and religious texts ?Akbar
Who were some painters in Akbars court ?Baswan, Miskina and Daswant
During whose reign was the Illustrations of Persian versions of Mahabharata and Ramayana were produced in miniature form ?Akbar
Who were some painters during Jahangir’s reign ?Abul Hasan, Bishan Das, Madhu, Anant, Manohar, Govardhan and Ustad Mansur
Akbar patronized which musician ?Tansen of Gwalior.
memorize

Art and Architecture

Question Answer
Sher Shah built a new city on ?the banks of the river Yamuna near Delhi
Who built Purana Qila ?Sher Shah
Nishat Bagh is in ?Kashmir
Shalimar Bagh is at ?Lahore
Pinjore garden is in ?Punjab
During whose reign were the mausoleum at Sasaram in Bihar and the Purana Qila near Delhi built ?Sher Shah
Who built Agra Fort ?Akbar
Agra fort is made of ?Red sandstone
Akbars forts can be found at ?Agra, Lahore and Allahabad
Who built Red Fort at Delhi ?Shah Jahan
What buildings can be found at Red fort ?Rang Mahal,Diwan-i-Amand and Diwan-i-Khas
Who built a palacecum-fort complex at Fatepur Sikri (City of Victory) near Agra ?Akbar
Are Bengali and Gujarati style buildngs built by Mughals ?yes probably for rajput women
Who built Jama Masjid ?Shah jahan
What is the gateway to the Jama Masjid called ?Buland Darwaza or the Lofty Gate - built to commemorate Akbar’s victory over Gujarat
Jodh Bai’s palace and Panch Mahal are located in ?Fatepur Sikri
Which buiding can be considered as a precursor to Taj Mahal ?During Akbar’s reign, the Humayun’s tomb was built at Delhi and it had a massive dome of marble
Akbar’s tomb at Sikandara near Agra was completed by ?Jahangir
Who built the Itimaddaulah at Agra ?Nur Jahan - constructed wholly of white marble with floral designs made of semi-precious stones on the walls
What is the technique which has white marble with floral designs made of semi-precious stones on the walls called ?Pietra dura
Pietra Dura was popular during the reign of ? Shah Jahan
The Moti Masjid at Agra was built entirely in ?white marble
The Jama Masjid at Delhi was built in ?red stone
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